AP_Psychology_Review - AP Psychology Review History and...

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AP Psychology Review History and beginnings of Psychology Definition of psychology - the science of behavior and mental processes. Wilhelm Wundt – created an experimental apparatus – measured time lag between people’s hearing a ball hit a platform and their pressing a telegraph key. Sought to measure “atoms of the mind” – fastest and simplest mental processes. Ebbinghaus – Study of memory Pavlov – Study of conditioning Structuralism - an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. Functionalism - a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish. Nature vs. Nurture - the long-standing controversy over the relative contribution that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Natural selection - the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variation, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. Perspectives of psychology: Neuroscience - how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences. Evolutionary - how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes. Behavior genetics - the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior. Psychodynamic - the study of how behavior springs from unconscious drives and dreams. Behavioral - the study of how we learn observable responses. Cognitive - the study of how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information. Social-cultural - the study of how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures. Sub fields of psychology : Basic research - pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base. Biological - a branch of psychology concerned with the brain, neurotransmitters, neurons, and how all of those things cause behaviors. Developmental - a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout the life span. Child development - pre-birth to puberty Adolescent development - puberty to adulthood Adulthood development - 21-65 Geriatric development - 65- dead Cognitive - research of mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communication. Personality - research of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Social - the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
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Applied research - scientific study that aims to solve practical problems. Industrial-organizational - the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces. Overconfidence - the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments.
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