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Module 3 - Module 3 Neuroscience and Behavior Neural and...

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Module 3: Neuroscience and Behavior I. Neural and Hormonal Systems a. composed of subsystems that are in turn composed of even smaller subsystems b. tiny cells organize to form organs that form larger systems for digestion, circulation, & information processing c. systems make us bio-psycho-social systems d. by studying links between biological activity & psychological events, biological psychologists are gaining better understanding of sleep & dreams, depression & schizophrenia, hunger & sex, & stress & disease. I Neurons & Neural Impulse A. body’s neural information is complexity built from simplicity 1 building blocks = neurons, or nerve cells a each consists of a cell body & its branching fibers b busy dendrite fibers receive information, & axon fibers pass it along to c other neurons or to muscles or glands d axons = very long e layer of fatty tissue myelin sheath insulates axons of some neurons & helps speed impulses importance is evident in multiple sclerosis disease in which sheath degenerates slowing of all communication to muscles & loss of control f neural impulse travels at speeds ranging 2 mph to 200 mph still 3 million times slower than that of electricity through wire measured in milliseconds g neuron fires impulse when it receives signals from sense receptors stimulated by pressure, heat, or light, or when stimulated by chemical messages from neighboring neurons h impulse = action potential brief electrical charge that travels down axon i neurons generate electricity from chemical events chem. to electricity process involved exchange of electrically charged atoms called ions j fluid interior of resting axon has excess of negatively charged ions, while fluid outside axon membrane has more positively charged ions k positive-outside/negative-inside state = resting potential axon’s surface is selective about what it allows in selectively permeable l neuron fires security parameters change first bit of axon opens gates & positively charged sodium ions flood through membrane channel depolarizes part of axon, causing channel to open and then next & next m resting pause = refractory period
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