Psych chp.1 - Heather Fackelman Module 1: The History and...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Heather Fackelman AP Psychology Module 1: The History and Scope of Psychology I. Prescientific Psychology - Greek philosopher-teacher Socrates (469-399 B.C) offered idea about mind & body as recorded by Plato - Socrates part-time stonecutter & statue carver, took no fees for teaching, wrote nothing, talked w/ anyone who wanted to engage ideas - Socrates & Plato viewed mind as separable from body & continuing after death knowledge as built within us - Aristotle kindly & warm, plainspoken Plato’s student - Denied presidency of Plato’s Academy after Plato’s death founded rival school, Lyceum & doubled scholarly output by farming out research to students - Love of data distinguished him from Socrates & Plato who derived principles by logic - He derived principles from careful observations told him that “soul is not separable from body, same holds good of particular parts of soul” knowledge is no preexisting, but grows from experiences stored in memories nurture shapes more than nature - Got things right events experienced under strong emotion are better remembered than unemotional ones recall memories through network of associations among stored experiences - Augustine (354-430 A.D) fascinated with human beings wrote about how condition of body influences mind, & how mind influences body too much bile makes you irritable, irritable situations stimulate too much bile - 1200 years later, modern science flourished Rene Descartes (1595-1650) agreed with Socrates & Plato about existence of innate ideas & mind’s being “entirely distinct from body” able to survive death - concept of mind forced him to conjecture how immaterial mind & physical body communicate - he dissected animals & concluded that fluid in brain’s cavities contained “animal spirits” flowed from brain through nerves to muscles provoking movement - memories formed as experiences opened pores in brain, into which spirits flowed - right that nerve paths are important & enable reflexes - Francis Bacon (1591-1626) one of founders of modern science - Fascinated by human mind & its failings wrote “the human understanding, from its peculiar nature, easily supposes a great degree of order and equality in things that it really finds” - Foresaw research on our eagerness to selectively notice and remember events that confirm our beliefs: “All superstition is much the same whether it be that of astrology, dreams, omens, retributive judgments, or the like, in all of which the deluded believers observe events which are fulfilled, but neglect and pass over their failure, though it be much more common” - 50 years after death, John Locke (1632-1704) British political philosopher wrote 1 page essay on “our own abilities” for upcoming discussion with friends
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
20 years & hundreds of pages later, he completed it famously argued that mind at birth is blank slate upon which experience writes - mind acts only on what has come in through the senses
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 02/14/2008 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Barbagallo during the Fall '07 term at Montclair.

Page1 / 6

Psych chp.1 - Heather Fackelman Module 1: The History and...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online