30. When All Else Fails (Kaufman) Kaufman argument – severity of security dilemma depends on how integrated population is Separate warring groups physically is the best solution to stop ethnic conflict (very expensive) i.e. Bosnia – when separated=peaceful intermixed population settlement patterns can promote escalation of violence, implying that demographic separation may dampen conflict population transfers inflict enormous suffering, including loss of homes and livelihoods and disruption of social, religious, and cultural ties. Thus, they can be justified only if they save the lives of people who would otherwise be killed in ethnic violence. Ireland, India, Palestine, and Cyprus--all of which were accompanied by large-scale population transfers and by substantial violence. In all four cases separation of the warring groups was successful in reducing violence. Continuing or resurgent inter-group violence in limited regions within some of the cases (Northern Ireland, Kashmir, the Palestinian intifada) has been due not to partition but to incomplete separation, i.e.
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