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REVIEW HUMAN COMM. EXAM 2 Chapter 13 1. Why are people fearful of public speaking? Skill Deficit o lacking of adequate skills for making a successful presentation o leads to speaker embarrassment, failure to reach audience and sense of frustration and helplessness o leads to loss of sales, fewer chances to participate in major projects, and perception that the speaker is not talented or qualified o need for practice and experience Conditioned Anxiety o when neutral communication situations collect negative connotations, images and memories over time o taught to be anxious because of a succession of negative events o after being punished for a similar situation o systematic desensitization- relax is a solution Negative Cognitive Appraisal o process of unrealistic, negative self-evaluations in which communicators assume that they are going to fail and then worry about failure and its consequences o handled by reducing negative self-statements o cognitive restructuring focus on reducing negative thoughts; negative then coping statements 2. Distinguish among 4 general purposes for speaking To Inform o informative presentations provide ideas, alternatives, data or even opinions o provide credible, reliable information to back up main points o function as a teacher To Persuade o persuasive presentations can change or reaffirm existing attitudes about important topics o strive to gain audience commitment o motivate action o make a commitment to your viewpoint and act in ways you advocate o course of action must be accepted by a group To Motivate o motivational presentations employ persuasion but rely more extensively on stimulating the emotions and feelings of listeners as a method of inducing action To Celebrate o ceremonial presentations often share many of the elements found in informative, persuasive and motivational speaking
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o demonstrate commitment to organizational ideals or organization’s commitment to its valued ideals o involves introduction, acceptance, tribute, goodwill, inspiration and celebration 3. What are some things to consider about your audience before you speak? Audience analysis - situational knowledge o research individual members of the audience, organizational factors that affect the audience and the location, time or other physical influences o best prepare for audiences needs and likely response to the message o gather info and monitor the situation throughout the presentation Demographic information o audience size, age, gender, social class, educational level, cultural background, and occupational status Target audience o key decision makers who are members of general audience o audience type, audience characteristics, environmental characteristics 4. What do you need to assess about the environment? 5. What main forms of support are used in speaking?
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course STCM 101 taught by Professor Garland during the Spring '08 term at Ithaca College.

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