Lecture - 12

Lecture - 12 - Foodborne Hazards Biological Food Safety I...

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1 Food Safety I Introduction and Infections Foodborne Hazards • Biological – Microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, paracites), plants, animals • Chemical – Allergens – Sanitizers, additives, chemicals • Physical – Rocks, wood, plastics, metal, glass Foodborne Outbreak • Two or more people experience a similar illness after eating a common food • 16,000 to 20,000 outbreaks reported per year • 40 to 60% cause/source of infection not identified Foodborne Illness Estimated in US: 76 million cases 375,000 hospitalizations 5,000 deaths
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2 Reporting Foodborne Illness Exposure in The Population Portion Displaying Symptoms Medical Advice Sought Specimen obtained Organism Identified Report to State Report to CDC Reportable Illness Cost of Foodborne Illness • Personal costs – Human life – Medical costs – Lost productivity – Physical and mental • Industry costs – Recalls – Ligation – Lost business Estimated losses $6.5 – 35 billion annually in USA Agents of Foodborne Illness 90 6 3 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 Bacteria Viruses Chemical Parasites Cause of Illness Percentage of Cases Why Microbial Hazards? • Public Awareness • Consumption Patterns – World wide markets • Reporting, monitoring • Consumption of riskier foods – Uncooked produce – Ready to eat foods – Imported foods – Seed Sprouts – Un-pasteruized juices
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3 Microbiology Study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye Parasites Fungi (molds, yeasts, mushrooms) Bacteria Viruses Prions Sizes Human Hair 100 um Yeast 25 um Bacteria 0.5 um Virus 0.027 um http://www.denniskunkel.com/ Contaminants present an “invisible challenge” because you can’t see them, and they usually don’t change the appearance, flavor or texture of the food. Sources of Microorganisms in foods Air Food Handlers Insects Animals Surfaces Raw Ingredients Packaging Soil Water
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4 Factors That Contribute to Foodborne Illness Live in foods? • Bacteria, yeasts, and molds can multiply or grow in foods – Under optimal conditions a cell can divide every 20 to 30 minutes – Characeristics that influence cell growth include nutrients, moisture, pH, oxygen, salts… • Parasites, viruses, and prions can not multiply in foods, but survive long enough to enter humans and cause illness Microbial Replication/Survival • Replication: Increase in numbers • Survival: No increase or decrease in numbers • Death: Decrease in numbers Growth of Bacterial Cells • Called “growth” or “multiplication” • Under the best conditions a cell can divide every 20 to 30 minutes
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5 Multiplying Bacteria: 30 minute doubling time 9 a.m. 10 a.m. 11 a.m. 12 p.m. 1 p.m. 2 p.m.
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Lecture - 12 - Foodborne Hazards Biological Food Safety I...

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