05wineopsbw08

05wineopsbw08 - Harvest Decision Affects Wine Qualities...

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1 Winemaking Operations Introduction to Winemaking, VEN 3 Introduction to Winemaking, VEN 3 Andrew L. Waterhouse Andrew L. Waterhouse University of California, Davis Harvest Decision Sugar level • ºBrix, 19-23 for whites, 20-26 for reds • Alcohol yield Acid level • pH 3-4, Titratable acid 6-10 g/l Flavor • Varietal • Seed appearance Affects Wine Qualities Fruit Arriving at Winery Sugar Shack Sugar Measurement Taking a Sample Unloading Grapes at Crush Pad Grapes at Receiving Hopper
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2 7 Sorting Table Used only at very high quality producers Destemming and Crushing Separates berries from stems Breaks up berries Amount of crushing affects wine Destemming first is superior • fewer stems in must • gentler crushing possible 9 Modern Destemmer Crusher Bucher, Delta Brand Diagram of Destemmer/Crusher Clusters In Must Out Stems Ejected Pump to Tanks Crushing Rollers Destemmer Crusher Must Compositon Juice 80% Skins 16% Seeds 4% By Weight
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3 Must Adjustments Acid addition • Tartaric acid Increases titratable acid, lowers pH Not allowed in cool areas of Europe Sugar addition • Chaptalization (sucrose) Not allowed in California, southern Europe Grape juice concentrate addition allowed Sulfur Dioxide Use Sulfur dioxide, SO 2 , (sulfites) • Prevents microbial action • Inhibits oxidation enzymes • Slows chemical oxidation • Reacts with Aldehydes (flavor) Sulfites label • >10 ppm • Legal limit 350 ppm • "Organic wine" not legally defined Free Run Drainer
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05wineopsbw08 - Harvest Decision Affects Wine Qualities...

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