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Unformatted text preview: 3/3/15 The Renaissance and Reforma4on in Northern Europe Mu 2313 Dr. Wood The Reforma4on 1 3/3/15 The Reforma4on •  Three primary reformers –  Mar4n Luther –  Ulrich Zwingli –  John Calvin •  Primary issues –  Indulgences –  Biblical ritual and prac4ce –  Rela4onship of body and soul –  Grace –  Predes4na4on –  Transubstan4a4on Mar4n Luther (1483-­‐1546) •  German •  Ninety-­‐five theses –  Indulgences violated church’s purpose •  An Appeal to the German Na5on –  No need to pay papal taxes –  Spiritually empty pilgrimages –  Clerical celibacy 2 3/3/15 Ulrich Zwingli (1484-­‐1531) •  Swiss •  Condemned non-­‐ biblical prac4ces –  Transubsta4a4on –  Pilgrimages –  Fasts –  Papal supremacy •  Taken prisoner & executed John Calvin •  French (Geneva) •  Ins5tutes of the Chris5an Religion –  Predes4na4on –  Salva4on by faith alone •  Calvinist theocracy –  puritanism –  zealots •  Inspired others 3 3/3/15 Science •  Improved cartography •  On the Fabric of the Human Body (Vesalius) •  On the Revolu5ons of the Celes5al Orbs (Copernicus) Concepts •  Chris4an Humanism –  Fundamental goodness of mankind –  Erasmus •  Translate Bibleàcommon language •  Fund public educa4on •  Avoid war •  Utopianism –  Coined by Thomas Moore, Utopia (1516) –  Communal ownership, egalitarianism, immutable set of just & ra4onal laws 4 3/3/15 Jan van Eyck, The Arnolfini Marriage, 1434 Rogier van der Weyden, The Descent from the Cross, c. 1435 5 3/3/15 Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1505 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Landscape with the Fall of Icaurus, c. 1554-­‐5 6 3/3/15 Albrecht Dürer, Self-­‐portrait, 1498 •  Leonardo of the N. Renaissance •  Trea4se on propor4on •  Virtuosic engravings •  Important transi4onal figure Albrecht Dürer The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, c. 1497-­‐8 Four Apostles, 1526 7 3/3/15 MaKhias Grünewald, Crucifixion, c. 1513-­‐15 Albrecht Altdorfer, BaEle of Alexander and Darius on the Issus, 1559 8 3/3/15 Jean Clouet, Francis I, c. 1525-­‐30 Hans Holbein the Younger, Henry the VIII in Wedding Dress, 1540 9 3/3/15 William Shakespeare •  1564-­‐1616 •  England’s greatest playwright •  Wrote for specific company=need to be prolific •  Three genres –  Comedies •  Taming of the Shrew, Much Ado About Nothing –  Tragedies •  King Lear, Julius Caesar –  Histories •  Richard II & Henry V Guillaume Dufay •  1400-­‐74 •  Polyphonic w/ clarity •  Adopted prac4ce of using secular songs for cantus firmus •  Notable composi4ons –  “Nuper Rosarum Flores” –  Se la face ay Pale Mass –  L’homme Arme Mass 10 3/3/15 Josquin des Prez •  1440-­‐1521 •  Prin4ng press = wide distribu4on •  Compared to Michelangelo •  Emphasized imita4on in polyphony (Masses/Motets) •  Roughly 70 secular songs which used homophony •  Regret over the death of Johannes Ockeghem Josquin des Prez Regret over the Death of Johannes Ockeghem 11 3/3/15 Music of the Renaissance (Germany) •  Chorale –  A hymn tune •  Mar4n Luther –  “A Mighty Fortress Is Our God” •  Johann Walter –  Polyphonic choral sejngs •  Heinrich Isaac –  “Innsbruck, I Must Leave Thee”à “O World, I Now Must leave Thee” •  Bach adopted for St. MaRhew Passion Music of the Renaissance (England) •  Center for music prin4ng •  Sacred music, drama4c changes in monarchy = “ “ in music •  Under Elizabeth I –  William Byrd revamped sacred music •  Secular Music –  Thomas Morley and Thomas Weelkes •  Ballek-­‐ dance-­‐like song for mul4ple voices •  Word pain4ng •  Non-­‐sense syllables (“fa-­‐la-­‐la-­‐la-­‐lah”) 12 ...
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  • Summer '08
  • Polyphony, Indulgence, –  John, propor4on   •  Virtuosic, theocracy   –  puritanism, Jan  van  Eyck

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