Study Guide – Exam 2 Chapter 16: Leadership -Leadership: process whereby an individual influences others to achieve a common goal, coordinating and guiding a group to achieve goals 1) Occurs between leaders & followers 2) Involves social influence 3) Occurs at multiple levels in an organization (individual mentoring to group teamwork) 4) Focuses on goal accomplishment 3 MAIN APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP: (1) Trait: believes we are born with a leader trait (2) Behavioral: leadership styles are based on behaviors that differentiate effective leaders from ineffective (3) Contingency: leader style should match situational characteristics (aka situational theories) LEADING VS. MANAGING Leadership Management A process in which an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal Perform functions associated with planning, organizing, and control -Deals with interpersonal aspects of a managers job Two jobs (leading and managing) are not synonymous GENDER AND LEADERSHIP -Women use more democratic/participative leadership style -Men used more autocratic/directive style -Men and women were equally assertive -Women executives scored higher than male counterparts when rated by peers 1 ) TRAIT APPROACHES : (1) Leadership- Trait Approaches: earliest approaches, believes we are born with a trait to lead (leader trait) Stodgill and Mann’s 5 Traits : traits that differentiate leaders from followers Implicit Leadership Theory : all leaders have prototypes which determine their traits of being an effective leader Judge : 2 findings Kellerman’s Bad Traits : 1
-Intelligence (*best predictor) -Dominance -Self-confidence -Level of energy -Task-relevant knowledge -We perceive someone as leader when they exhibit behaviors consistent with our leader prototypes -Found that extraversion positively correlates with leadership effectiveness and work performance -Incompetence -Rigid -Intemperate -Callous -Corrupt -Insular (disregards health of group) -Evil Leadership prototypes: -Empowerment -Fairness -Supportiveness -Found that personality is more important than intelligence TAKEAWAYS FROM TRAIT THEORY -There are key traits if you want to be a good leader: -Task competence (intelligent), interpersonal competence (able to communicate, demonstrate empathy), intuition, traits of character (moral, integrity), biophysical traits (energy), personal traits (confident, self-efficacy) **-We should use Judge’s findings to select leaders in selection process *-Extraversion positively correlated with leadership effectiveness and performance -Justifies the Griggs vs. Duke Power case of personality test to predict business outcome -Organizations may want to include personality/trait assessments into selection processes; management development programs can be used to enhance employee’s leadership traits (ex- before international assignments, need to know how personality is perceived in another culture) **-Management should consider conducting member development programs to create awareness of traits and how they influence behavior – how your personality affects others 2)
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- Spring '13