Anthropological Uniformities and DifferencesI. (Open-ended question) Anthropology informs sociology in showing:A. How the social organization of sexuality evolved to avoid social disorganizationB. How cultural variability is involved in the sexual norms of preliterate societiesC. How attitudes, behaviors, and emotional reactions to sexuality do not always fit together as commonly assumedII. An Anthropological Understanding of Sexuality.A. Points Out Universals Related to the Social Control of Sexuality1. Function of Universals: To Avoid Disruptive Competition2. Basic Social Controlsa. Some Form of Marriageb. Rules against Forced SexProvide for an attempt to avoid social disorganization c. Rules about Partner Eligibility(1) EndogamyHave to find a partner within boundaries of group or subgroup. Creates solidarity in the group Dysfunction: limits political strength, isolates the group because it isn’t creating networks with other groupsIn U.S. age is something we want people to stay in certain age group, seen in ethnicity/race and religion(2) ExogamyInvolves rules for obtaining partners that exist outside the group. Decreases solidarity within the group but increases political power (opposite of endogamy). Creates links to another groupArranged marriages with royal families, creates strength and bond in country, in the royalty…more people marrying outside religion, ethnicity or race but strengthens bonds/society (but at same time religious groups afraid the are losing their solidarity but increases political strength) (3) IncestExample of rule of exogamy – partner must be outside familyAnthropologists claim it is not so much biological (fear of inbreeding and genetic effects) they point out that breeding better often involved breeding within group (see in domesticated animals) function is to prevent disruptive competition (socialdisorganization…if there is a lot of competition for people in household/extended family peoplewill get angry at each other, cant work effectively on behalf of family…disorganization.