march4 safety

march4 safety - Immuno-compromised ? Food Safety II...

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1 Food Safety II Intoxications Immuno-compromised ? • Immune system is not functioning normally • Examples – Elderly – Transplant patients – Cancer patients – AIDS patients – Pregnant women Shifting Demographics Our population demographics are changing. Shifting demographics means that more of the U.S. population is, and increasingly will be, susceptible to foodborne illness. In 2007, 20-25 percent of the population is in a high-risk category (young, older, pregnant, immune-compromised). These Americans face a risk of serious illness or death from foodborne illness. In 1980, 15 percent of the population was 60 or older. By 2025, the number will be 25 percent. Four percent of the population is immune-compromised (transplant patients, people who are HIV positive, people receiving chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive treatments, people with chronic diseases). Convenience Trends Americans are consuming more convenience foods. Foods prepared outside the home may be subject to cross- contamination from other foods, as well as contamination from food workers. Ready-to-eat foods (bagged salad, cut fruit) and prepared foods (including hot bars with main and side dishes, as well as salad bars) and frozen dishes that can be cooked quickly are increasing in popularity. Cooking in the home is decreasing--people are eating out and bringing prepared foods home. Spending on foodservice items, such as supermarket deli foods, accounts for about half of all U.S. food spending.
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2 Consumption Patterns 1. A greater variety of foods are eaten year round. Also, foods that are consumed raw or with minimal processing are often associated with foodborne illness. 2. Consumers are encouraged to make healthier food choices and increase consumption of fruits and vegetables (5-9 servings/day), including fresh produce. 3. U.S. per capita consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables increased 36 percent from 1981 to 2000. 4. A typical grocery store carried 173 produce items in 1987 and now carries 558 produce items. 5. Produce items that were once considered seasonal are available on a year-round basis. 6. Increased consumption of exotic foods whose safety hazards are not well understood. Global Food Supply Toxicants in Foods “All substances are poisons; there is none that is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison from a remedy” PARACELSUS (A physician/alchemist, 1493 to 1541) "the dose makes the poison" Toxicant vs. Nutrient • Toxicant – A substance that when ingested in high levels, produces harmful actions on biological mechanisms (e.g. Vitamin A) • Nutrient – A substance that when not ingested in sufficient amounts, produces harmful actions on biological mechanisms (e.g. Vitamin A)
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3 A Measure of Toxic Hazards • LD 50 – Statistical value that represents an estimation of the dose required to produce death in 50% of organisms tested – The lower the LD 50 , the more potent the toxin Rating Toxins A taste (less than 7
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course BIS 1b taught by Professor Kimsey during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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march4 safety - Immuno-compromised ? Food Safety II...

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