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Unformatted text preview: 1 Carbohydrate Notes ! Class this is a summary of some of the more complicated slides. ! This is not meant to be a complete summary of the carbohydrate lectures ! Nor does it represent all the important facts about the lectures. ! It is to help you fill in some of the blanks of your notes which you were not able to write down during the lectures. ! Please come to our office hours for other questions. CHEMICALLY Foods Are: ! Major Components ! Water ! Protein ! Carbohydrate ! Fat Water is most often the majority component of foods Carbohydrates - Background ! Term comes from early observations of chemists that the formula: C n (H 2 O) n was common ! Appears to look like hydrated carbon or ! carbon hydrates Carbohydrates - Terminology Monosaccharides (simple sugars; one sugar molecule) Glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharides (two sugar molecules) Sucrose, lactose, maltose Oligosaccharides (3-5 sugar molecules) Maltodextrins Bean carbohydrates raffinose, stachyose Polysaccharides (10s 1000s of sugar molecules) Starch, cellulose, glycogen Hemicellulose, pectin, gums, other fiber Simple Sugars Glucose a.k.a. dextrose a.k.a. blood sugar Present in foods as glucose Present in many foods as part of other carbohydrates incl. sucrose, lactose, maltose, polysaccharides Fructose A.k.a. levulose a.k.a. fruit sugar though not only sugar in fruits Present in foods as fructose, as part of sucrose Galactose Part of milk sugar, lactose Only found in milk Degree of Sweetness Sugar Composition Sweetness Fructose monosaccharide 120 Glucose monosaccharide 70 Sucrose disaccharide 100 Maltose disaccharide 45 Lactose disaccharide 40 Corn Syrup Glucose, maltose, and other oligosaccharides 30-50 High-Fructose Corn Syrup Fructose, maltose, & others 80-90 Invert sugar syrup Glucose & fructose 95 2 Sucrose Glucose + Fructose Invertase C 6 H 12 O 6 C 6 H 12 O 6 + +H 2 O C 12 H 22 O 11 Carbohydrates - Honey +H 2 O ! Sucrose from plants is converted from a...
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- Spring '08