Tracing the Path of Human Development (notes) - Tracing the Path of Human Development Lesson Objective Analyze hominin evolution Lesson Key Concepts

Tracing the Path of Human Development (notes) - Tracing the...

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Tracing the Path of Human Development Lesson Objective Analyze hominin evolution Lesson Key Concepts Homo erectus : a hominin species that lived between 1.8 million and 25 thousand years ago Homo heidelbergensis : a hominin species that lived between 850,000 and 125,000 years ago Homo neanderthalensis : a hominin species that lived between 130,000 and 10,000 years ago Homo sapiens : modern humans, which evolved around 195,000 years ago and are still alive today Browridge: a projection of bone above the eyes Nuchal torus: the part of the back of the skull where neck muscles attach Acheulian: the stone tool industry developed by Homo erectus Biface: a stone tool used like a hand axe, which could be used to cut, scrape, pound, and dig Complete replacement model: Homo sapiens from Africa replaced all other hominin species around the world Vocabulary Words Projecting: sticking out Emigrate: to leave one’s place of residence or country to live elsewhere Anatomy: the structural makeup of an organism Elaborate: complex, detailed, intricate The Stages of Hominin Development After hominin evolution had brought about the early Homo in Africa, our ancestors’ further development started moving quickly. Evolutionary forces continued to work on hominins. Early Homo hominins began to take
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on somewhat more modern characteristics. This began to happen around two million years ago. Many of the hominin fossils that anthropologists have found from that time and later have shown fewer differences than older fossils did. (Australopithecines were still alive at this point, but our Homo ancestors were evolving away from them.) However, the transition from early Homo to Homo sapiens took a very long time. Different forms of hominins evolved during that time. Four Main Hominin Species within the Genus Homo Name Time Existed Characteristics Homo erectus Lived between 1.8 million and 25 thousand years ago Average brain size of 930 cm3, large face, thick skull, large browridges, and a receding forehead Homo heidelbergensis Lived between 850,000 and 125,000 years ago Average brain size of 1,200 cm3, large browridges, low forehead, and a long head Homo neanderthalensis Lived between 130,000 and 10,000 years ago Average brain size of 1,450 cm3, long and low head, large browridges, weak chin, and a protruding midfacial area Homo sapiens (or modern humans) Evolved around 195,000 years ago Average brain size of 1,325 cm3, high forehead, small brow ridges, and a prominent chin If we could watch the evolutionary progress of these hominins, it would be amazing to see them become more and more like us! Well, while we can’t actually see this happen, we can study it through the fossil record. That is what countless anthropologists have done, and that’s what we’re about to do! We’ll start with the first species of the more modern hominins: Homo erectus .
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Homo Erectus The fossil record indicates that Homo erectus (which literally means " upright man") first appeared 1.8 million years ago. Like other hominins before it, H. erectus originated in Africa. The oldest fossil remains of H.
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