A Laboring WorldCompare the types of labor used in various systems.Division of labor-(noun) Cooperation by dividing work and performing specific tasksSpecialization-(noun) Working on only one task or type of activityWage labor-(noun) Working for moneyForced labor-(noun) SlaverySlavery-(noun) the use of force or violence to make people workIndustrial Revolution-(noun) the shift from muscle power to mechanical orchemical power to produce and transport goodsCurrently-(adverb) at the present timesubMotivate-(verb) to provide a reason for actionAcute-(adjective) Sharp, severe [SAT word]Hunting and GatheringWhat does a hard day of work look like?Until a few thousand years ago, it meant walking around, collecting plants and berries to eat, and maybe hunting a few animals. People lived in small groups, collected their food and other necessities from the land, and only worked a few hours a day. They lived easily in the summer and fall. However, they had hard times in the winter, in bad weather, or if they had trouble finding animals to hunt.This period is called the Old Stone Age because the only material used to make tools was stone. Stone was also chipped to make strong, sturdy implements.Have you ever hunted for arrowheads? These are examples of Stone Age tools!AgricultureThe Neolithic Era is also called the New Stone Age. Neolithic comes from two Greek words: neo, meaning new, and lithos, meaning stone. It began
about 9500 BCE and ended around 3500 BCE when human beings developed the ability to work with metals. During the Neolithic Era, people still used stone to make implements and made tools out of stone. But unlikeearlier people, Neolithic people polished their tools instead of simple chipping them with rocks. During the last part of the New Stone Age, human beings learned to make pots from clay. They also learned to plant and harvest seeds. Instead of moving around looking for food, they made food themselves. People began growing plants on purpose: this was the beginning of horticulture, which is the science of plant cultivation. Other people began collecting and taming animals, especially sheep, goats, and cattle. These new abilities - horticulture and animal husbandry (the practiceof breeding and raising livestock) - changed human history. It had become possible for people to live in large groups and create culture.