List of relevant terms for Chinese Religion examination:
Duke of Zhou (Zhou Gong):
Prays to ancestral spirits (three deceased kings) when his
King (Wu) falls sick, begging them to spare the king and take himself instead as their
servant in death. The text of prayer locked into metal bound coffer. Response of
divination (Prophezeihung) from the three tortoises is a favorable one and King recovers
(Kongzi) (551-479 BCE) Analects, collection of discourses with disciples.
Believer in heaven (He who offends against heaven has none to whom he can pray). Was
a traditionalist. Lived in time of social crisis and sought to respond to such through
special teachings aimed at all people. He was a teacher to prepare students to become
leaders, emphasized development of mind and character.
“Since beginning of human nature no being quite like our master.”
Qin dynasty burned books and build great wall, Han dynasty instituted it again. Compiled
five classics. Outer harmony implies living socially, inner harmony means living well.
His political utopia based on society run by harmonious collaboration of ritualized role
behaviour on all levels of society: (ruler/subject), father/son, husband/wife, elder brother/
lit. ‘the ruler’s son’). Name for Noble or gentleman, denotes person of high moral
character. Exemplary person, no aristocrat.
Concept of ritual, including propriety in behavior towards others. Significant in
perfection of human life and society. Ritual is a model of social harmony, also functions
to create a harmonious society. Meant to be meaningful and effective. Rituals have a
performative function, that is, the act itself creates some sort of change namely to
establish s social relationship. The handshake is an instrument that causes other people to
behave in a required manner.
Ren: (Human and two)
Taught on the virtue of
(Humaneness), contributed to social
revolution. Put nobility of virtue ahead of nobility of birth. Central teaching, main legacy.
Concerned with human relationship.
Translated as goodness, benevolence, humanity,
Two pervasive forces in the universe, opposing yet complimentary. Often Daoists
considered to prefer Yin style (naturalness, personal cultivation), Yang more
Confucianism like (rationality, definitions of social roles, moral excellence)
one pair of complimentary principles manifested as masculine, affective, hard, dry