Chemistry Outline

Chemistry Outline - Chemistry Outline 07/09/2007 18:25:00...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry Outline 07/09/2007 18:25:00 1.1 Chemistry study of properties and behavior of matter o Variety of matter due to combinations of elements o Atoms form molecules o an understanding of chem is central to all other sciences 1.2 States of Matter Liquid solid Gas o Gas molecules far apart moving fast o Liquid molecules closer still move rapidly o Solid still closer in fixed arrangements and can only wiggle back and forth slightly Pure substances have distinct properties and composition that do not vary o Elements cannot be decomposed into simpler substances o Compounds can be decomposed o Mixtures are combinations in which chemicals retain their own identity oil and water Elements o 116 known o 5 elements make up 90% of crust oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium Compounds o Most elements can form compounds with other elements o The observation that a pure substance always has the same composition is the Law of Constant Composition or law of definite proportions Mixtures o Most of matter we encounter o Each substance retains its own chemical characteristics o Proportions can vary o Substances that make up mixture called components o Can be hetero or homogeneous mixtures 1.3 Properties of matter o Physical and chemical Physical can be measured w/o change Chemical properties describe how a substance changes o Intensive and extensive Intensive is in dependent of mass Extensive is mass dependent Physical and Chemical Changes o Physical changes do not change composition just appearance All changes of state o Chemical changes a substance becomes a chemically different substance Separation of Mixtures o Each substance in a mixture retains its own properties the properties can be used to separate the mixture by differing properties Filtration distillation and magnetism are methods that can be employed 1.4 Units of measurement o Metric system o Length and mass meter kilo o Temp celcius Kelvin equal sized units o K = C + 273.15 o Density = mass / vol temperature dependent measured in g/cm3 2 liquids different densities lower floats on top 1.5 uncertainty in measurement Exact v Inexact #s o Exact # have defined value o Inexact have some amount of error due to measurement Human error and equipment errors Uncertainties exist in measured quantities Systematic and random error Precision and Accuracy o Precision - how closely measurements of some quantity agree with each other o Accuracy how closely values measured agree with the assigned or correct value Significant figures o Measured quantities are reported in a way in which the last digit the...
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Chemistry Outline - Chemistry Outline 07/09/2007 18:25:00...

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