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Chemistry Outline

Chemistry Outline - Chemistry Outline 18:25:00 ← 1.1 •...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry Outline 07/09/2007 18:25:00 ← 1.1 • Chemistry – study of properties and behavior of matter o Variety of matter due to combinations of elements o Atoms form molecules o an understanding of chem is central to all other sciences ← 1.2 • States of Matter – Liquid solid Gas o Gas – molecules far apart moving fast o Liquid – molecules closer still move rapidly o Solid – still closer in fixed arrangements and can only wiggle back and forth slightly • Pure substances – have distinct properties and composition that do not vary o Elements cannot be decomposed into simpler substances o Compounds can be decomposed o Mixtures are combinations in which chemicals retain their own identity – oil and water • Elements o 116 known o 5 elements make up 90% of crust oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium • Compounds o Most elements can form compounds with other elements o The observation that a pure substance always has the same composition is the Law of Constant Composition or law of definite proportions • Mixtures o Most of matter we encounter o Each substance retains its own chemical characteristics o Proportions can vary o Substances that make up mixture called components o Can be hetero or homogeneous mixtures ← 1.3 • Properties of matter o Physical and chemical Physical can be measured w/o change Chemical properties describe how a substance changes o Intensive and extensive Intensive is in dependent of mass Extensive is mass dependent • Physical and Chemical Changes o Physical changes do not change composition just appearance All changes of state o Chemical changes a substance becomes a chemically different substance • Separation of Mixtures o Each substance in a mixture retains its own properties the properties can be used to separate the mixture by differing properties Filtration distillation and magnetism are methods that can be employed ← 1.4 • Units of measurement o Metric system o Length and mass meter kilo o Temp celcius Kelvin equal sized units o K = C + 273.15 o Density = mass / vol temperature dependent measured in g/cm3 2 liquids different densities lower floats on top ← 1.5 uncertainty in measurement • Exact v Inexact #’s o Exact # have defined value o Inexact have some amount of error due to measurement Human error and equipment errors Uncertainties exist in measured quantities Systematic and random error • Precision and Accuracy o Precision - how closely measurements of some quantity agree with each other o Accuracy – how closely values measured agree with the assigned or correct value • Significant figures o Measured quantities are reported in a way in which the last digit the...
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Chemistry Outline - Chemistry Outline 18:25:00 ← 1.1 •...

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