Section2

Section2 - Biology Section 2 chapters 4-8 Section 2 Cells...

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Biology Section 2 chapters 4-8 Section 2 Cells 9/17/07 Plant cells have plastids (chloroplast) but not all plants have chloroplasts or  conduct photosynthesis. -Also have cell walls and vacuoles Things to know about cells: Plants=chloroplasts, cell wall, plasmoderma, vacuoles (1-few) + a few other  things Animals= many vacuoles Nucleus: Two membranes, many pores, chromatin inside, RNA made in nucleolus,  How many chromosomes do we have? Too many to count because every cell  has chromosomes and there are too many cells to count. Each cell has 46 chromosomes in it. Rough ER has ribosomes, functions in protein synthesis and transports things Smooth ER has no ribosomes, chemical processing, removes toxins Rough ER transports vesicles to Golgi apparatus to make proteins for outside  cell use.
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“Cis” side of golgi receives vesicles “Trans” side of golgi transports vesicles out Golgi apparatus- processes proteins and makes polysaccharides Lysosomes: have hydrolynic enzymes, function is to digest things, can destroy  harmful things to cells. Membrane-bound. “Suicide bags”   if they turned on the cell,  they would destroy the cell. Mitochondria: function in energy transference, cellular respiration, double  membrane (inner, outer) intramembrane space, cristae (projections in folds). Also has  DNA and ribosomes. Chloroplast (plastid)- in plants, bigger than mitochondrion, double membrane  (outer, inner) intramembrane space. DNA ribosomes, Stroma= liquid in sac.  Has  granums (stack of thylakoid) stores energy. Has chlorophyll. *Endosymbiosis- a cell taking in the other cells.  Plastids: Chromoplasts-color Leucoplasts- starch Proplastids- immature Origin: endosymbiosis Why? DNA ribosomes, double membrane, division unlike lysosomes. Also: some animals cells do contain functional chloroplasts
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Other organelles: Peroxisomes- H2O2 (toxic) Glyoxysomes- plants-lipids carbohydrates Vacuoles- plants/animals -waste -storage -food/water plants-several large vacuoles Animals-many small vacuoles 9/19/07 Cytoskeleton-helps the cell function (Figure 420 pg 87) *Microfilaments (function in movement of the cell and shape of the cell), made up  of proteins. *Intermediate filaments-stabilize cell structure. Fibrous subunit.
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Section2 - Biology Section 2 chapters 4-8 Section 2 Cells...

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