section4

section4 - Section 4 ← 60% old material, 40% new material...

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Unformatted text preview: Section 4 ← 60% old material, 40% new material ← ← NERVOUS SYSTEM ← nervous system • receives information • converts information ← Has… ← sensory cells (receptors) ← effectors ← ganglia (small aggregation of nerve cells) ← brain ← ← central nervous system (CNS) • brain • spinal cord ← peripheral nervous system (PNS) • nerves and receptors ← ← sea anemone has a nerve net . sea star has central neural ring with nerves connected to it (radial nerve) both have radial symmetry ← earthworm has segmented nerve, ganglion ventral nerve cord, and brain at front. Flatworm has nerve cord and transverse nerve and brain. both have bilateral symmetry ← squid has brain, nerves to gut, ganglion, nerves to muscle, and visual ganglion. Humans have CNS and PNS. ← ← Neuron: • Dendrite • soma • axon hillock • axon • axon terminal ← Specialized neurons • Cerebellum • Retina • cerebral cortex • spinal cord ← ← Cells: • Neurons o Glial cells Support Orientation Insulation Contracts o Schwann cells- myelin o Oligodendrites- myelin o Astrocytes- blood/brain barrier ← ← Sodium-potassium pump • 3:2 ratio ← ← Course of action potential: • Resting potential (-70 mv) • Threshold (stimulates) • Action potential • Repolarization or hyperpolarization • Resting potential 11/12/07 calcium causes vesicle to merge with the membrane and release the neurotransmitters to synaptic cleft neurotransmitter substances: • Acetylcholine- *primary neurotransmitters • Norepinephrine- monoamine • Dopamine- monoamine • Histamine- monoamine • Serotonin- monoamine • ATP- purine • Adenosine- purine ← Senses • Sight- light • Hearing- mechanical displacement • Touch- mechanical displacement • Smell- chemical • Taste- chemical Sight- visible light spectrum Hearing- hearing, balance, gravity Touch- touch, pressure, tickle, pain, heat (cold), stretch blood pressure and location (sensing where things are without looking) Taste & smell chemical Smell • Molecules travel up nasal cavity into olfactory bulb. In olfactory bulb there is axon, bone, olfactory sensor, basal cell, dendrite, supporting cell, mucus film with olfactory hairs that have sensors....
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course BIO 1305 taught by Professor Eldridge during the Spring '08 term at Baylor.

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section4 - Section 4 ← 60% old material, 40% new material...

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