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section4 - Section 4 60 old material 40 new material...

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Section 4 60% old material, 40% new material NERVOUS SYSTEM nervous system receives information converts information Has… sensory cells (receptors) effectors ganglia (small aggregation of nerve cells) brain central nervous system (CNS) brain spinal cord peripheral nervous system (PNS) nerves and receptors sea anemone has a nerve net sea star has central neural ring with nerves  connected to it (radial nerve)   both have radial symmetry earthworm has segmented nerve, ganglion ventral nerve cord, and brain at front.  Flatworm has nerve cord and transverse nerve and brain.   both have bilateral symmetry
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squid has brain, nerves to gut, ganglion, nerves to muscle, and visual ganglion.  Humans have CNS and PNS.  Neuron: Dendrite soma  axon hillock  axon  axon terminal Specialized neurons Cerebellum Retina cerebral cortex spinal cord Cells: Neurons o Glial cells Support Orientation Insulation Contracts
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o Schwann cells- myelin o Oligodendrites- myelin o Astrocytes- blood/brain barrier Sodium-potassium pump 3:2 ratio Course of action potential: Resting potential (-70 mv) Threshold (stimulates) Action potential Repolarization or hyperpolarization Resting potential 11/12/07 calcium causes vesicle to merge with the membrane and release the neurotransmitters to  synaptic cleft neurotransmitter substances: Acetylcholine- *primary neurotransmitters Norepinephrine- monoamine Dopamine- monoamine Histamine- monoamine
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Serotonin- monoamine ATP- purine Adenosine- purine Senses Sight- light Hearing- mechanical displacement Touch- mechanical displacement Smell- chemical Taste- chemical Sight- visible light spectrum Hearing- hearing, balance, gravity Touch- touch, pressure, tickle, pain, heat (cold), stretch   blood pressure and location  (sensing where things are without looking) Taste & smell   chemical Smell  Molecules travel up nasal cavity into olfactory bulb. In olfactory bulb there is  axon, bone, olfactory sensor, basal cell, dendrite, supporting cell, mucus film  with olfactory hairs that have sensors.
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