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biology10 - Chapter 3 Functional groups-little compounds...

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Chapter 3 Functional groups-little compounds with chem. Configuration, behave as an element even though they are compounds “-ane” = hydrocarbons hydrocarbons exist in isomers (a) structural isomers: variation in covalent arrangement (b) geometric isomers: variation in arrangement around a double bond (c) stereoisomers: variation in spatial arrangement around in asymmetric carbon, resulting in molecules that are mirror images like left and right hands. Stereoisomers cannot be superimposed on each other. (optical) ^ isomers-same chem. Formula, different arrangement of neutrons macromolecules: carbohydrates- sugars, starch, etc. lipids-fats/oils proteins- nucleic acids-DNA/RNA carbohydrates-made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen ratio: 1 carbon to 1 water (H2O) CH2O Simple and complex sugars (form starches) Characteristics of sugars: 1. an –OH group is attatched to each carbon except one, which is double bonded to an oxygen (carbonyl) aldehyde: terminal carbon forms a double bond with oxygen ketone: carbonyl group is within the carbon skeleton 2. size of the carbon skeleton varies from 3 to 7 carbons. The MOST COMMON monosaccharides are: classification # of carbons example triose 3 glycaraldehyde pentose 5 ribose hexose 6 glucose 3. spatial arrangement around asymmetric carbon may vary. For example, glucose and galactose are optical isomers. (bonded to four different things)
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“-ose” means sugars the small differences between isomers affects molecular shape which gives the molecules distinctive biochemical… 3 forms: linear-line intermediate-linear and ring ring- (two types, alpha and beta) alpha=H on top beta-Hon bottom 1 simple sugar= monosaccharide 2 simple sugars linked together= disaccharide
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