section4 - Dr. Weaver 11/05/07 Sexual reproduction behavior...

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Unformatted text preview: Dr. Weaver 11/05/07 Sexual reproduction behavior memory language endocrine system release substances into body (usually through bloodstream) exocrine system release substances out of the body (tears, sweat, etc.) hormones two kinds of effects: organizing effects: modify growth and development of tissue activating effects: modify FUNCTIONING of existing structures endocrine/exocrine exocrine: released in ducts, targets mostly surface of the body, ex. Tears, sweat endocrine: release directly in bloodstream, targets skin, organs, other endocrine structure. Ex. Pituitary, thyroid, testes, ovaries hormones: hormones and neurotransmitters both are released in response to some stimuli some chemicals are both transmitters and hormones hormones vs. transmitters neurotransmitters are released in really small amounts, hormones in larger amounts. Hormones often released far from target tissue, neuros released directly at target tissue Hormones released in bloodstream, neuros released into synapse Hormones are long lasting, neuros are short action Hormones elicit long-term readiness to respond, neuros elicit short term reaction into single stimulus Types of hormones Simple amino acids (or derivatives) Peptides/proteins: amino acid chains Steroid hormones: based on the cholesterol molecule Action hormones Simple amino acids (or derivatives) Peptides/proteins: generally alter ionic membrane permeability Steroid hormones: enter into cell, influence the genetic expression within the nucleus Gonadal hormones (sex hormones) Steroid-based Produced by the gonads (primarily) Regulated by the gonadotrophin (via the pituitary) All gonadal hormones are released in small amounts by the adrenal cortex Classes of gonadal hormones Androgens Primarily released by testes (but also adrenal cortex) Most common is testosterone Usually in higher concentrations in males Estrogen Primarily released by ovaries (also by adrenal cortex) Most common is estradiol Usually in higher concentrations in females Progestins Primarily released by ovaries (also adrenal cortex) Most common is progesterone Usually in higher concentrations in females What controls and releases hormones? Hypothalamus: regulates but does not directly release hormones- master gland of the master gland Pituitary gland: A. anterior pituitary, B. posterior pituitary Hypothalamus: releases various releasing hormones Anterior pituitary gland: releases TSH, LH, FSH, ACTH & prolactin Posterior pituitary gland: releases oxytocin, vasopressin...
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section4 - Dr. Weaver 11/05/07 Sexual reproduction behavior...

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