Chapter_10

Chapter_10 - Chapter 10: Ionizing Radiation and...

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Chapter 10: Ionizing Radiation and Environmental Radioactivity Electromagnetic or particulate radiation b/c produces ion pairs in ANY material it transverses. Radiation with energy less than 11 eV can not move electron away from an atom (ionize) Discovered by Henri Bequerl in 1896 (Natural Radioactivity) realized that rays that could penetrate matter were emitted from the material itself. Madame Marie Curie tested many elements for similar properties. Discovered Ernest Rutherford 1899 found alpha & beta particles emitted from Uranium -x-rays produced by decelerating electrons by Wilhem Roentgen Sources The quantity of a radioactive source is defined by its “activity” or the rate of spontaneous nuclear transformation. Unit is a Becquerel. 1 Bq = 1 s^-1 Convential unit Curie. 1 Ci = 3.7 x 10^10 s^-1 (exactly) Radiation - exposure - measure of quantity of X or gamma radiation. Definition - electric charge the radiation produces as it traverses an air mass. Conventional unit of exposure is the roentgen (R)= 2.58 x 10 ^-4 C kg^-1 -energy – corpuscular radiation is generally defined by stating the particle identity and its KE. The SI of energy is a J, but conventional units in multiples of eV are used. One eV is the KE acquired by an e- accelerated through a potential difference of 1 V. Dose Absorbed dose- dose is the energy transferred to the absorber by the ionizing radiation. The SI of D is Gy = 1 J kg^-1 The conventional unit is rad which is equal to 100 ergs per
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Chapter_10 - Chapter 10: Ionizing Radiation and...

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