HIST 1011 Final Exam Study Guide ID TermsSocial ContractWhat: Theory of political thought that questions the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.Who: Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan (1651), Locke’s Treatise (1689), Rousseau’s du social contract (1762) all influenced social contract theory.Where: Age of Enlightenment, primarily Europe and North AmericaFurther Reading: Blackboard Outline - October 17th Significance: The Enlightenment’s notion of a fundamental social contract between man and state precipitated the events of the French Revolution, but also formed the ideologicalfoundation for American society, where the 1787 US Constitution expressed confidence in the people’s fitness to decide their own fate. The Constitution included a series of constitutional guarantees of freedom, and granted more power to the legislature than the executive.Meiji RestorationWhat: The overthrow of the Tokugawa bakufu in Japan in 1868 and the “restoration” of power to the imperial government under the Emperor Meiji.Who: The Japanese Emperor, who claimed that his revolution was merely a “restoration” of the emperor to his throne.Significance: This reversion to a highly centralized and militarized form of government reflected the trend in many 19th century nations, including the US, Italy, and Germany. The newly centralized state of Japan matches the notion that the interests of states came above those of the individual or of religion; this is known as Staatspolitik in German.Further Reading: Blackboard Outline - November 7th, article on Meiji “adoption of a constitution”BismarckWho: A conservative German statesman who brilliantly oversaw the unification of German principalities into a German superstate.What: Unified the German principalities under his rule, forged the German Empire into a formidable military force and economic powerhouse.Significance: Bismarck’s nationalist movement established for German statehood, which soon crushed the French Army (Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71) in a feat of strength and grew its economy to a point where it rivaled Britain’s. Additionally, a unified Germany found that it could effectively contend for overseas colonies in Africa and Asia. Opium WarWhat: Two wars resulting from a trade dispute between China and Great Britain over China’s efforts to curtail the sale of opium by Great Britain. First War: 1839-42, Second War: 1856-60.