Competancy Asignment 3.rtf - 1 Principles Governing Human...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Principles Governing Human and Animal Behavior Desire Halla Rasmussen University Psychology Carol Knight 10/28/2021 2 The key principles that I believe govern human and animal behaviors are motivation, emotions, and environment. According to readings, motivation is a set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward a goal. There are categories of motivational theories: biological, psychosocial, and biopsychosocial. Emotion is a subjective feeling that is accompanied by physical and behavioral changes. Some emotions can feel better than others and some are more intense than others. There are four major theories of emotion: James-Lange theory, Cannon-Bard theory, Facial-feedback theory, and Schachter’s Two-factor theory. Environment is the combination of physical, social and cultural conditions that influence an individual’s development and behavior (Gale, 2001). The study of motivation is concerned with the influences that govern the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior (Gale, 2001). Applying motivation to my own life, I believe that the motivational theory that I most relate to is biopsychosocial. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs breaks down into five categories. Basic needs of all humans and animals would be the first two levels. Physiological needs (food, water, warmth, and rest) and safety needs (security and safety). Psychological needs are the third and fourth level. Belongingness and love needs (intimate relationships and friendships) and esteem needs (prestige and feeling of accomplishment). The last level is self-fulfillment which is self-actualization (achieving one’s potential including creative activities) (McLeod, 2018). My physiological and safety needs are met by sustaining viable income to support myself and my family. Food, water and shelter for my child is why I choose to work so that the basic needs are provided for him first. All humans and animals require basic needs. My love and belongingness needs are from the love, acceptance, and involvement as well as receiving the feeling of being loved by friends and family. People and societal groups want to belong to have a place in a social world. As a nursing 3 student, I feel that I am working on my esteem needs. Working through my nursing program gives me the feeling of esteem by celebrating with friends and family all accomplishments no matter how big or small until I reach the end goal of completing the program. The second portion of the esteem needs comes from reputation and respect from completing the esteem needs. Involving people in your life that motivates you can boost the esteem level thus increasing the motivation. Lastly is self- actualization which is self-fulfillment and personal growth. I believe that if you have a goal in mind and work to achieve that goal, you are meeting or working on this level. Putting in the time and effort to complete nursing motivates me at this level. Motivation increases in people and societal groups as needs are being met from the desire to grow. Emotion is defined as a reaction, both psychological and physical, subjectively experienced as strong feelings, many of which prepare the body for immediate action (Gale, 2001). The emotion theory that I identify with the most in my everyday life would be the Schachter-Singer theory. The Schachter-Singer theory restores James’s emphasis on the interpretation of physiological responses but adds another element, a cognitive evaluation of what caused the responses. I do believe it is possible to have an emotional response to a trigger without giving a facial expression as a feedback but a mental process of processing the trigger. If you mentally label a dog terrifying, you could encounter a dog and become afraid that it may show the opposite emotion. Some people like myself if I am angry, I may cry instead of having an angry facial expression. Emotion enhances interactions between people and societal groups because it gives other people emotions to interpret from someone else. This can also play a role in motivation. For example, ifa person shows expressions of happiness, laughter, and joy while in a relationship, that can transmit feelings of being loved to the other person involved. 4 Environment psychology is basically an applied field geared toward solving specific problems rather than a theoretical area of study. Like social learning theory, it is heavily concerned with the reciprocal relationship between behavior and environment, including the ways in which people cope with their physical surroundings by altering them (Gale, 2001). An example of social learning theory would be a toddler observing and imitating behaviors of their parents. In my case, applying this to my own life, I have learned my behaviors from my mother whom I tend to imitate without consciously knowing. Environment enhances interactions between societal groups in a similar way. For example, a group of girls from different countries may become friends and imitate each other by saying similar phrases, doing similar activities, or even dressing alike. The surrounding environment affects how you interpret your surroundings. 5 References Environment, The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2nd edition, pages 221-222, retrieved from: ? u=mnarasmuss&sid=GVRL&xid=8b0e2eda Mcleod, Saul., 2018, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Simply Psychology, retrieved from: Motivation, The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2nd edition, pages 440-441, retrieved from: ? u=mnarasmuss&sid=GVRL&xid=1d197d58 Strickland, Bonnie., 2001, Emotion, The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2nd edition, pages 218-219, retrieved from: ? u=mnarasmuss&sid=GVRL&xid=e0142b33 ...
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