chapter2 - Chapter 2 An Overview of Biological Basics David...

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1 1 David R. Shonnard Chapter 2: An Overview of Biological Basics David Shonnard Department of Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University 2 David R. Shonnard Presentation Outline: Lectures 2 and 3 l Diversity of Microorganisms l Naming and Taxonomy of Cells l Procaryotes l Eucaryotes l Viruses l Cell Structure - major classes of compounds l Culture Media Components
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2 3 David R. Shonnard Temperature i. Grows best below 20˚C ii. Grows best between 20 and 50˚C iii. Grows best above 50˚C pH i. Grows best near neutral pH ii. Grows well at pH of 1 to 2 iii. Grows well at pH as high as 9 Diversity of Microorganism Environmental Conditions Phychrophiles Mesophiles Thermophiles Acidophiles 4 David R. Shonnard Diversity of Microorganism Environmental Conditions Moisture i. Most cells require a minimum moisture content ii. Some cells grow in the near absence of moisture Salinity i. Most cells require a moderate level of salinity ii. Some cells can exist in very high salt concentrations
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3 5 David R. Shonnard Diversity of Microorganism Environmental Conditions Oxygen Availability i. Require oxygen for growth ii. Require lack of oxygen for growth iii. Aerobic or anaerobic Nutrient Availability i. Most microorganisms require organic and inorganic nutrients to grow and survive ii. grow in the absence of key nutrients: e.g. can convert CO 2 from air into organic cellular molecules. Aerobic Anaerobic Facultative Cyanobacteria 6 David R. Shonnard Diversity of Microorganism Cell Morphology Size and Shape i. Spherical or Elliptical ii. Cylindrical iii. Spiral Coccus Bacillus Spirillum
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4 7 David R. Shonnard Naming of Cells (Nomenclature) Cell Names are in Latin Genus Name: Species Name: Escherichia E. coli coli 8 David R. Shonnard Taxonomy of Cells Table 2.2 Group Cell Structure Properties Constituent groups Eucaryotic Multicellular; extensive differentiation of cells and tissues Unicellular; coenocytic or mycelial; little or no tissue differentiation Plants (seeds plants, ferns, mosses) Animals (vertebrates, invertibrates) Protists (algae, fungi, protozoa) Procaryotic Cell chemistry similar to Eucaryotes Most bacteria Procaryotic Distinctive cell chemistry Methanogens, halophiles, thermoacidophiles. Eucaryotes Procaryotes Archaebacteria
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5 9 David R. Shonnard Taxonomy of Cells Table 2.1 Characteristics Procaryotes Eucaryotes Genome No. of DNA molecules DNA in organelles DNA observed as chromosomes Nuclear membrane Mitotoc and meiotic division of nucleus Formation of partial diploid One No No No No Yes More than one Yes Yes Yes Yes No Organelles Mitochondria Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Photosynthetic apparatus Flagella No No No Chlorosomes Single protein, simple structure Yes Yes Yes Chloroplasts Complex structure with microtubules Spores Heat resistance Endospores High Endo- and exo-spores Low 10 David R. Shonnard Procaryotes: Gram Negative Cells “Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts Shuler and Kargi, Prentice Hall, 2002
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6 11 David R. Shonnard Gram Negative Cells A. Cell Envelope
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