chapter4 - Chapter 4 How Cells Work David Shonnard...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–6. Sign up to view the full content.

1 1 Michigan Technological University David R. Shonnard Chapter 4: How Cells Work David Shonnard Department of Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University 2 Michigan Technological University David R. Shonnard Presentation Outline: l Introduction : Central Dogma l DNA Replication: Preserving and Propagating DNA l Transcription: Sending the Message l Translation: Message to Product (Proteins) l Regulation of Transcription and Enzyme Activity
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

2 3 Michigan Technological University David R. Shonnard The cell must control and regulate the biosynthesis of proteins , amino acids , lipids , etc. Chapter 4 outlines the major cellular processes for doing this, starting with the replication of DNA and ending in protein synthesis. Introduction 4 Michigan Technological University David R. Shonnard The Central Dogma Central Dogma All life employs similar methods to store , express , and utilize the genetic information resident in DNA. “Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts Shuler and Kargi, Prentice Hall, 2002
Image of page 2
3 5 Michigan Technological University David R. Shonnard Elements of Genetic Information Genetic information is stored on DNA strands in the chromosome as sequences of nucleotides. 4-letter alphabet in DNA A - adenine only H-bonds with T T - thymine U-uracil in RNA only H-bonds with A G - guanine only H-bonds with C C - cytosine only H-bonds with G 3-letter words “codons” • Table 4.1 • each word codes for 1 amino acid • 4 3 = 64 possible words “Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts Shuler and Kargi, Prentice Hall, 2002 6 Michigan Technological University David R. Shonnard Genetic Code: Codons in RNA and Amino Acids “Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts, Shuler and Kargi, Prentice Hall, 2002
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

4 7 Michigan Technological University David R. Shonnard DNA Replication : Major Steps • Unwind DNA double helix - DNA girase • Original DNA (template) “read” in the 3’ 5’ direction • New DNA strand synthesized in the 5’ 3’ direction 8 Michigan Technological University David R. Shonnard DNA Replication ( E. Coli ), Figure 4.2 RNA primer made - RNA Polymerase DNA nucleotides added to RNA primer - DNA Polymerase III RNA primer hydrolyzed - DNA Polymerase I DNA replaces RNA primer - DNA Polymerase I “Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts Shuler and Kargi, Prentice Hall, 2002
Image of page 4
5 9
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 6
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Fall '14
  • NguyễnThịLinh
  • DNA, Michigan Technological University, David R. Shonnard

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern