Test 3 Study Guide - Chapter 10 Substance Use Disorders Terms Some important terms and distinctions Substance use vs substance intoxication Substance

Test 3 Study Guide - Chapter 10 Substance Use Disorders...

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Chapter 10 Substance Use Disorders Terms Some important terms and distinctions Substance use vs. substance intoxication Substance use disorders Tolerance vs. withdrawal o Tolerance- build up, need more of the substance you are taking to get the same effect as you did when you first started using the substance o Withdrawal- when you are not on the drug you get negative consequences 5 Main Categories of Substances Depressants o Behavioral sedation (alcohol, sedative, anxiolytic drugs) Stimulants o Increase alertness and elevate mood (cocaine, nicotine, amphetamines) Opiates o Produce analgesia and euphoria (heroin, morphine, codeine) Hallucinogens o Alter sensory perception (marijuana, LSD) Other drugs of abuse o Include inhalant, anabolic steroids, medications Alcohol’s Route Through the Body Drink it, stomach, small intestines, liver, brain, other organs, affects the brain o Takes a lot of time for the alcohol to make it’s way throughout the body and to feel the effects of alcohol Alcohol’s Effects First- affects forebrain and assaults motor coordination and decision making Second- knocks out the midbrain and you lose control over emotions and increase chances of a blackout Third- batters the brainstem as it affects heart rate, body temperature, appetite and consciousness, a dangerous and potentially fatal condition Psychological and physiological effects of alcohol o Central nervous system depressant o Influences several neurotransmitter systems o Specific target is GABA Effects of chronic alcohol use o Alcohol intoxication and withdrawal o Associated brain conditions- dementia and Wernicke’s disease o Fetal alcohol syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
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A pattern of problems, including learning difficulties, behavior deficits, and characteristic flaws, resulting from heavy drinking by the victim’s mother when she was pregnant with the victim Features of the disorder: Skin folds at the corner of the eye, low nasal bridge, short nose, indistinct philtrum (grove between nose and upper lip), small head circumference, small eye opening, small midface, thin upper lip Alcohol Use Facts and Stats In the United States o Most adults consider themselves light drinkers 92% will use in lifetime o Alcohol use is highest among Caucasian Americans (56.5%) o Males use and abuse alcohol more than females o 23% of Americans report binge drinking o Violence is associated with alcohol Sedatives Barbiturates- sleep aid, antianxiety, sedative, addictive (Amytal, Seconal) o Popular in the early 1900s Benzodiazepines- used to treat insomnia, antianxiety, addictive (Valium, Xanax) o Popular in the mid 1900s o “Mommy’s little helpers”- popular in the 50s for moms to take valium to deal with normal life stresses o 1980 FDA stated not safe for life stress Benzo’s Effects Has an influence on GABA, indirect effect on dopamine (associated with PNS), benzo’s occupy receptor site on GABA and inhibits the GABA from inhibiting the
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