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Exam I Study Guide bio 1 - Exam I Study Guide Principles of...

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Exam I Study Guide Principles of Biology I Spring 2007 Chapter 1 1. Know the properties of life A. Cellular organization – All organisms consist of one or more cells. Often too tiny to see, cells carry out the basic activities of living. Each cell is bonded by membrane that separates it from its surroundings. B. Order – All living things are highly ordered. Your body is composed of many different kinds of cells, each containing many complex molecular structures. C. Sensitivity – All organisms respond to stimuli. Plants grow toward a source of light, and your pupils dilate when you walk into a dark room. D. Growth, development, and reproduction – All organisms are capable of growing and reproducing, and they all possess hereditary molecules that are passed to their offspring, ensuring that the offspring are of the same species. E. Energy Utilization – All organisms take in energy and use it to perform many kinds of work. Every muscle in your body is powered with energy you obtain from the food you eat. F. Evolutionary adaptation – All organisms interact with other organisms and the environment in ways that influence survival, and as a consequence, organisms evolve adaptations to their environments. G. Homeostasis- All organisms maintain relatively constant internal conditions, different from their environment, a process called homeostasis. 2. Know the steps of the scientific method and be able to apply them to a scientific process. First, scientists make observations that raise a particular question. They develop a number of potential explanations (hypotheses) to answer the question. Next, they carry out experiments in an attempt to eliminate one or more of these hypotheses. Then, predictions are made based on the remaining hypotheses, and further experiments are carried out to test these predictions. As a result of this process, the least unlikely hypotheses is selected. 3. Know the 4 unifying themes of biology. A. Organization of life: The Cell Theory – All living organisms consist of cells. B. Continuity of Life: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance – The information that specifies what a cell is like—its detailed plan—is encoded in a long, cable-like molecule called DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid). Specific sequences of several hundred to many thousand nucleotides make up a gene, a discrete unit of information. The entire set of DNA instructions that specifies a cell is called its genome. C. Diversity of Life: Evolutionary Change D. Unity of Life: Evolutionary Conservatoin Chapter 2
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1. Be able to explain the basic idea behind the quantum-mechanical model of the atom. Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons. The number of protons an atom has is called its atomic number.
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