Chapter 10 Outline - 11-12-07

Chapter 10 Outline - 11-12-07 - Psychology Chapter#10...

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Psychology – Chapter #10 Outline – 11/12/07 CHAPTER #10 – BEHAVIOR IN SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT Norms (social) – Rules that regulate social life, including explicit laws and implicit cultural conventions. Roles – A given social position that is governed by a set of norms for proper behavior. Stanley Milgram – Designed an experiment to test how many people would obey an authority figure when directly ordered to violate their own ethical standards. o About (2/3) of participants obeyed the orders of the authority figure and administered a shock to the “learner” (on behalf of their role as “teacher”) that reached the maximum voltage (450 Volts – XXX) o People were likely to disobey under these conditions: When the experimenter left the room When the victim was right there in the room When two experimenters issued conflicting demands When the person ordering them to continue was an ordinary man When the subject worked with peers who refused to go further o According to Milgram, obedience was more of a function of the situation than the particular personalities of the participants. Personality traits always have less influence on behavior than the demands of the situation. Philip Zimbardo - Stanford Prison Study o Prisoners became distressed, helpless, and panicky o Guards enjoyed new power o Demonstration of the power of roles o The prison study is another example of obedience to authority and how willingly some people obey instructions o Study remains a powerful demonstration of how the social situation affects behavior, causing people to behave in ways they might not otherwise choose to do, ways that seem “out of character” Several factors cause people to obey when they would rather not: o Allocating responsibility to the authority o Routinizing the task o Wanting to be polite o Becoming entrapped
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Entrapment – A gradual process in which individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action to justify their investment of time, money, or effort. Social cognition – An area in social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory perception, and beliefs Social-cognitive neuroscience – Draws upon technologies from neuroscience to study the emotional and social processes underlying beliefs, prejudices, and social behavior. Attribution theory – The theory that people are motivated to explain their own and other people’s behavior by attributing causes of that behavior to a situation or a disposition. o
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Chapter 10 Outline - 11-12-07 - Psychology Chapter#10...

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