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Chapter 9 Outline - 11-11-07

Chapter 9 Outline - 11-11-07 - Psychology Chapter#9 Outline...

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Psychology Chapter #9 Outline – 11/11/07 CHAPTER #9 – LEARNING Learning – A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral potential) due to experience Behaviorism – An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior. o Also known as “stimulus-response” psychology Conditioning – A basic kind of learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and the organism’s responses. Ivan Pavlov – Studied salivation in dogs as part of a research program on digestion. The original reflex consists of: o An unconditioned stimulus (US) – The classical conditioning term for a stimulus that produces an automatic response in the absence of learning o An unconditioned response (US) – The classical-conditioning term for an automatic response produced by a stimulus in the absence of learning A neutral stimulus – one that does not yet produce a particular response A conditioned stimulus (CS) – The classical-conditioning term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to produce a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus. A conditioned response (CR) [learned response] – The classical-conditioning term for a response that is produced by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus. o This is usually similar to the original, unlearned response Classical conditioning – The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to produce a response through association with a stimulus that already produces a similar or related response. o Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning Extinction – The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus. o The reappearance of the response is called spontaneous recovery – The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction. Explains why eliminating conditioned response requires more than one extinction session.
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Higher-order conditioning – In classical conditioning, a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus. o Example: If the food bowl is the conditioned stimulus and salivation is the conditioned response, then pairing a lightbulb (neutral stimulus) with the food bowl (conditioned stimulus) will produce a conditioned response to the light bulb alone. o May contribute to the formation of prejudices Stimulus generalization – After conditioning, the tendency to respond to stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the CS produces the CR.
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