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Chapter 8 Outline - 11-10-07

Chapter 8 Outline - 11-10-07 - Psychology Chapter#8 Outline...

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Psychology – Chapter #8 Outline – 11/10/07 CHAPTER #8 – MEMORY RECONSTRUCTING THE PAST Memory refers to the capacity to retain and retrieve information, and also to the structures that account for this capacity The Manufacture of Memory Sir Frederic Bartlett – Concluded that memory is a reconstructive process. Source misattribution (source confusion) – The inability to distinguish an actual memory of an event from information you learned elsewhere about the event. The Fading Flashbulb Roger Brown and James Kulik coined the phrase flashbulb memories in regards to vivid recollections of emotional events because the phrase captures the surprise, illumination, and seemingly photographic detail that characterize such memories. Usually people remember the gist of a startling emotional event they experienced or witnessed. The Conditions of Confabulation Because memory is reconstructive, it is subject to confabulation – Confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you, or a belief that you remember something when it never actually happened o Confabulations are especially likely under these circumstances: 1.) You have thought, heard, or told others about the imagined event many times 2.) The image of the event contains lots of details that make it feel real 3.) The event is easy to imagine MEMORY AND THE POWER OF SUGGESTION The Eyewitness on Trial Children’s Testimony
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IN PURSUIT OF MEMORY Measuring Memory Explicit Memory – Conscious, intentional recollection of an event or of an item of information o It is usually measured by two methods: 1.) Recall – The ability to retrieve and reproduce from memory previously encountered material 2.) Recognition – The ability to identify previously encountered material. Implicit Memory – Unconscious retention in memory, as evidenced by the effect of a previous experience or previously encountered information on current thoughts or actions. o One of the oldest methods of measuring implicit memory, the relearning method , or savings method , was devised by Hermann Ebbinghaus . 1.) The relearning method – A method for measuring retention that compares the time required to relearn material with the time used in the initial learning of the material. Priming – A method for measuring implicit memory in which a person reads or listens to information and is later tested to see whether the information affects performance on another type of task. Models of Memory Information-processing models of cognitive process VERY SIMILAR TO A COMPUTER We encode (convert information to a form that the brain can process and use), store (retain information over time), and retrieve (recover information for use).
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