Psychology – Chapter 1 – 9/15/07
– The discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and
how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external
– Relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or
– The now discredited theory that different brain areas account for
specific character and personality traits, which can be “read” from bumps on the
– An early psychological approach that emphasized the function
or purpose of behavior and consciousness
– A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy,
originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, that emphasiszes unconscious motives
– A psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events
and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts
– A field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary
mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition,
development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behavior.
– A psychological approach that emphasizes how the
environment and experience affect a person’s or animals actions; it includes
behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories.
– A psychological approach that emphasizes mental
processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of
– A psychological approach that emphasizes social and
cultural influences on behavior
– A psychological approach that emphasizes
unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the
movement of instinctual energy.
– A psychological approach that emphasizes free will,
personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential.
– The study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge
for its own sake rather than for its practical application
– The study of psychological issues that have direct practical
significance; also, the application of psychological findings.