Chapter 1 notes

Chapter 1 notes - Psychology Chapter 1 9/15/07 Psychology...

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Psychology – Chapter 1 – 9/15/07 Psychology – The discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment. Empirical – Relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement. Phrenology – The now discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits, which can be “read” from bumps on the skull. Functionalism – An early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness Psychoanalysis – A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, that emphasiszes unconscious motives and conflicts Biological Perspective – A psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts Evolutionary Psychology – A field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behavior. Learning Perspective – A psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person’s or animals actions; it includes behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories. Cognitive perspective – A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior. Sociocultural perspective – A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior Psychodynamic perspective – A psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy. Humanist psychology – A psychological approach that emphasizes free will, personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential. Basic psychology – The study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application Applied Psychology – The study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also, the application of psychological findings.
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Psychotherapist A person who does psychotherapy; may have anything from no degree to an advanced professional degree; the term is unregulated. Clinical psychologist Diagnoses, treats, and/or studies mental and emotional problems, both mild and sever; has a Ph.D, an Ed.D, or a Psy.D Psychoanalyst Practices Psychoanalysis; has specific training in this approach after an advanced degree (usually, but not always, and M.D or a Ph.D); may treat any kind of emotional disorder or pathology. Psychiatrist
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PSYCH 105 taught by Professor Sarahconklin during the Fall '07 term at Allegheny.

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Chapter 1 notes - Psychology Chapter 1 9/15/07 Psychology...

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