Chapter 7 Outline - Thinking and Intelligence - 10-25-07

Chapter 7 Outline - Thinking and Intelligence - 10-25-07 -...

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Psychology – Chapter #7 Outline – 10/25/07 CHAPTER #7 – THINKING AND INTELLIGENCE Thought: Using What We Know The human mind is an information processor. The brain actively alters and organizes information When we take action, we physically manipulate the environment; when we think, we mentally manipulate internal representations of objects, activities, and situations The Elements of Cognition One type of mental representation: concept – A mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties. o Anger, joy, and sadness are instances of the concept emotion . o Concepts simplify and summarize information about the world so that it is manageable, so that we can make decisions quickly and efficiently. Prototype – An especially representative example of a concept – a representative or most commonplace example of the concept. o A concept that is most representative is called prototypical We must also represent the relationships of concepts to one another – one way to accomplish this may be by storing and using propositions , units of meaning that are made up of concepts and that express a unitary idea (a unit of meaning that is made up of concepts and expresses a single idea) o These can express nearly any sort of knowledge or belief – they are linked by complicated networks of knowledge, associations, beliefs, and expectations. These networks are called cognitive schemas – an integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world o These networks serve as mental models of aspects of the world. People have schemas about cultures, occupations, animals, geographical locations, and many other features of the social and natural environment. Mental images – A mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents; mental images can occur in many and perhaps all sensory modalities. o We can manipulate them, they occur in a mental “space” of a fixed size, and small ones contain less detail than larger ones. o Can be sensed in almost all modalities, including auditory, touch, taste, smell, or pain.
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How Conscious Is Thought? SUBCONSCIOUS THINKING Subconscious processes – Allow us to handle more information and to perform more complex tasks than if we depended entirely on conscious, deliberate thought, and they enable us to perform more than one task simultaneously. o Examples: Driving a car, decoding the letters in a word in order to read it. o Because of the capacity for automatic processing, people can, with lots of practice, even learn to perform simultaneously such complex tasks as reading and taking dictation, without much loss in accuracy. “Multitasking” is inefficient
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PSYCH 105 taught by Professor Sarahconklin during the Fall '07 term at Allegheny.

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Chapter 7 Outline - Thinking and Intelligence - 10-25-07 -...

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