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Chapter 12 Achieving a Healthy WeightBody CompositionFat-free massincludes __________, bone, body fluids, and organsMuscles are often specifically referred to as ________ body mass or muscle mass_______________ fatis required for body functioningIt is stored in major body _________ and tissues and throughout the centralnervous systemFemales have additional essential fat for childbearing and other hormone-relatedfunctionsStorage fatis the extra fat that accumulates in fat cells around organs and beneath theskin to ___________, pad, and ___________ the body from trauma and coldFat cells(or____________ cells) are storage sites for energyFat is a dynamic organ that produces a multitude of hormones and inflammatoryproteinsOverweight Versus ObeseOverweight: a body weight in excess of a recommended range for good healthObesity: specifically, having an excessive accumulation of body fatBody Mass Index (BMI): a direct calculation basedon __________ and __________, used to classify overweight and obesityWeight in pounds, divided by height (in inches) squared, multiplied by 703A BMI of below 18.8 is considered underweightA BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is considered normalA BMI of ________________ is considered _______________A BMI of ________________ is considered _______________Location of Fat_________fat, distributed primarily in the ___________ area (apple-shape obesity), islinked to increased risk for coronary _________ ___________, hypertension, highcholesterol, type 2 diabetes, and cancerCharacteristic of many men, but also some womenFat distributed in the lower extremities, around the hips, buttocks, and thighs (pear-shape obesity) does not present as great a ______More common in women_________-to-hip ratio may be more important than BMI in predicting health problemsbecause abdominal fat is so heavily linked to diseasesDivide the waist by the hipWomenshould be below_____Menshould be below_____
Waist circumference alone may be a predictor of riskMen with a waist circumference of over _____inches and women with a waistcircumference of over ____ inches are classified as high risk no matter their BMIA __________-_________ diet and regular aerobic _____________ can help reducebody fat stores regardless of where they are locatedRisks Associated with ObesityObesity is linked to more than _____ chronic diseasesThe major associated killers are __________disease, several types of _________,___________, type 2 ______________, and atherosclerosisThe combination of type 2 diabetes and obesity can lead to __________, nervedamage, ____________ failure, and cardiovascular diseaseObesity aggravates liver disorders and osteoarthritis; is found in conjunction withgallbladder disease; and _____________ surgery and pregnancyWhat Causes Obesity?Obesity occurs when a person’s caloric __________ is ____________ than the amountof energy the person _________Evidence suggests the cause is a complex combination of ____________, genetic,psychological, behavioral, __________, and environmental factorsThe Energy Balance EquationEnergy input (_________ ___________) must be equal to energy output (_________________________) for body weight to remain constantAcalorie(actually akcal) is a measure of energy__________ calories = 1 poundTo reduce weight, (1) reduce caloric intake ________ the energy requirement; (2)increase the caloric _____________ through additional physical activity aboveenergy requirements; or (3) combine the two methodsIn practice, individual differences in resting metabolic rates, cellular makeup, and leantissue become a considerationHeredityGenetics is responsible for about ________ of these factors: the number of fat cells inthe body, how much fat is stored, where it is stored, and metabolic ratesSome of the body’s hormones may also be linked to obesity_______: a hormone secreted by fat cells that informs the brain about the size of

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Term
Fall
Professor
MRS.SHEPHERD

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