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Biology 220 Exam 4 Review - 12-17-07

Biology 220 Exam 4 Review - 12-17-07 - Biology 220 Exam 4...

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Biology 220 – Exam 4 Review – 12/17/07 Lecture #23 – Mitosis and Meiosis Things to know: o You need to be able to walk through the processes of mitosis and meiosis Describe these processes in DETAIL Diagrams are not usually necessary Understand them so that you can answer questions about the processes o Chromosomes, chromosome structure, cell cycle o Chromosome replication Terminology – tell her what a homologous chromosome is o Chromosome structure – the idea is that we take an awful lot of stuff and package it into a very small area – o Cell cycle controllers o Mitosis is apart of the cell cycle – mitosis is subsection of the cell cycle Mitosis is a BIG PROCESS and is really important, but it is apart of the cell cycle o Most of the time the cell is in G1 o Mitosis is a short, but integral part of the cell’s life o Asexual animal reproduction – short here – Asexual reproduction in Bacteria cells - Binary fission Asexual reproduction in Animals – Mitosis Meiosis – Meiosis and mitosis are very similar o The difference is meiosis involves TWO steps: Meiosis I – Takes the homologous pairs and splits them She spent A LOT of time talking about Meiosis I Two events that take place here that contribute significantly to genetic variation: o 1.) Crossing Over o 2.) Independent Assortment Meiosis II – The same thing as mitosis Because the homologues are separated, you end up working with haploid material instead of diploid o We work with 2 haploid individuals instead of 1 single diploid individual No time about Meiosis II – it’s the same thing as mitosis COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE TWO PROCESSES – KNOW THE DIFFERENCES!
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Mitosis is apart of the cell cycle, whereas meiosis is something that only happens in a very small subset of animals Meiosis happens in progenators and sex gametes o Happens only in testes and ovaries o Once meiosis happens, the cells go into an extended G0 phase o It’s not until the egg is fertilized and you get the development of a zygote that you have a fully functional cell. Meiosis is a separate process that occurs in the sex organs Without meiosis you cannot have sexual reproduction DIFFERENT PHASES OF THE CELL CYCLE DNA Replication Lecture #24 – Plant Reproduction - Things to know: A sexual reproduction o Structures, functions, and end product o This is all happening because of simple mitosis events NO MEIOSIS Alternation of generations o Talk about the process, what it means, how we see variation in alteration of generations o Ferns are talked about in regards to alternation of generations quite frequently because we can see both generations Ferns and mosses are one of a few types of plants where we can see a stand-alone gametophyte o Important things – first slide (#12) - gametophyte versus sporophyte KEY IDEAS!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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