Reviewer-in-Research-in-Daily-Life-1.docx - HRE_111...

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HRE_111: RESEARCH LESSON 1: NATURE OF INQUIRY AND RESEARCH WHAT IS RESEARCH? Research is a systematic inquiry that describes a phenomenon, predicts an outcome, and poses questions for further studies. It may be done: Inductively (if it starts with analyzing a phenomenon and ends with identifying its underlying principles, theories, or processes) or Deductively (which begins with specifying hypotheses and continues with verifying these through evidence or data). CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH Recursive – it involves performing steps in a cyclical and non-linear way. Empirical – it is based on verifiable evidence, observation, or experiences. Logical – it is based on sound principles and a systematic procedure. Requires higher - order thinking skills – it involves interpreting data and drawing conclusions from the gathered data. Replicable – it can be repeated by other researchers as long as its methodology is sufficiently detailed. Solution-oriented – it aims to address a particular problem Objective – it requires accurate recording of data through observation, interviews, experiments, and other means. Requires sufficient sources of data (self- explanatory) IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH It is critical to our economic, sociopolitical, environmental, and medical development. Economically, it can be used in developing human capital, new products, technology, and services. In terms of sociopolitical development, research can provide information relevant to policy-making and governance. Research can help us better understand our culture and values. As a student, you will reap personal and academic benefits from doing research. RESEARCH ETHICS General Research Practice Data Management and Program Authorship Use of Human and Animals QUALITATIVE VS. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Aspects Qualitativ e Research Quantitative Research Purpose To describe and understand social phenomena and interactions among people To test hypotheses, establish causal relationship, make predictions, and generalize from findings Sample Size Required Small sample size Larger sample size Sampling Method Purposive sampling Random sampling Relationshi p with the Participants Less formal Formal Data Needed Verbal Information, images, and artifacts (text-based) Statistical information and numbers (number- based) Data Collection Method Interview, observation, document, analysis Test, experiment, pretest-posttest, and any other method that requires precise measurements Level of Subjectivity Moderate to high Low Generalizabilit Content analysis Statistical
y and coding analysis Scientific Method Explanatory, bottom-up or Inductive (i.e. generating hypotheses or theories from data) Confirmatory, top-down, or deductive (i.e., testing hypotheses or theories through data) Research Setting Typically in a natural setting Typically in a controlled setting Reporting Typically narrative with description of context and examples from the participants’ responses Statistical reporting LESSON 2: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUALITATIVE It seeks a deeper understanding of a phenomenon. It`s main goals are to describe and explain

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