BIOLOGY 220 LECTURE #12 - Respiration and Photosynthesis - Notes - 10-9-07

BIOLOGY 220 LECTURE #12 - Respiration and Photosynthesis - Notes - 10-9-07

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BIOLOGY NOTES – RESPIRATION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS – 10/9/07 Respiration ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS FOR FULL UNDERSTANDING: When do these kinds of reactions happen? Where do they happen? What kinds of things have to be in place for them to happen? Why do we do these reactions? What is cellular respiration? - Aerobic respiration: What does aerobic mean? It means that it needs and uses oxygen What kind of organisms use oxygen ( respires) ? o Humans o All the different kingdoms of animals o Plants All plants respire aerobically Photosynthesis makes sugar it doesn’t use it At night and when plants want to grow, or when they want to synthesize anything else, they burn sugar in oxygen o Bacteria Most do, some anaerobically o Fungi Most fungi respire aerobically o Protista Protizoa and algae o Archaea Some archaea respire aerobically OVERVIEW OF AEROBIC RESPIRATION: o Bring glucose into the cell and run it through a process called glycolysis where we break sugar, producing a compound called pyruvate. Pyruvate can go a couple different ways, but in aerobic respiration it gets turned into a compound called acetyl-coA as pyruvate crosses into the mitochondria o From there, it goes into the Krebbs cycle where we can make ATP and make other compounds and turn out Carbon Dioxide and our sugar is all gone o We take those “other compounds” NADH FADH2 and run them through electron transport and make ATP. o To make ATP, we need oxygen and you give off water.
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Overall simplified equation is: C6H12O6 3 Major Steps: 1.) Glycolysis is the breaking of sugar. One C6H12O6 makes two C3 compounds called pyruvate. We’re basically splitting sugar in half. In the process, we are going to get two ATP (the fundamental energy of the cell) and two NADH (which is a carrier molecule). Don’t memorize the process illustrated in diagram In the early steps, you actually, have to put ATP into the process. You have to pump this up to get it to work (needs a little charge). o Put in two ATP REMEMBER, EVERYTHING THAT HAPPENS FROM NOW ON HAPPENS TWICE . As everything is happening twice, we make two ATP on each side. We make 4 ATP, but since we put in two ATP, our net output is only two ATP. Don’t follow all the details o At the end of glycolysis, we end up with two molecules of pyruvate and those two ATP o Right after we split the sugar, we also make two NADH. NADH can be used to make ATP NADH can also be used directly as energy in other reactions Glycolysis equation: o C6 sugar (Glucose) becomes 2 C3 sugars (pyruvate) and along the way we are going to make 2 ATP and 2 NADH. What do we do with Pyruvate? o
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BIOLOGY 220 LECTURE #12 - Respiration and Photosynthesis - Notes - 10-9-07

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