BIOLOGY 220 LECTURE #8 - Notes

BIOLOGY 220 LECTURE #8 - Notes - BIOLOGY 220 LECTURE #8...

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BIOLOGY 220 LECTURE #8 – Water Temperature Balance ANIMAL TEMPERATURE REGULATION - 8 Strategies for thermoregulation o Advantages to Endothermy: o You can live in places that are really cold/hot o Use the inside of your body to keep internal temp. the same o Disadvantages:’ o Constantly metabolizing food energy o High metabolic cost o Basal metabolic rate – minimum energy requirement to live o BMR is six times that of an ectotherm (something that uses the environment to maintain a set point. o Because Endothermy is metabolically costly, we have to have energy saving strategies. ANIMAL TEMPERATURE REGULATION – 9 Energy-saving strategies in endotherms o Endotherms have mechanisms that they use to lower the metabolic rate to keep from losing heat/energy o Body Shape o Organisms that are very large tend to have a huge volume compared to the surface area o So if you’re in an environment where it is very warm, this is an advantage – you can actually get your blood cooled off without wasting energy transporting things o If you’re in a cold environment, you are more likely to lose heat – o Organisms in cold environments will have small surface areas so that they do not lose as much heat. o If you are a big organism in cold environment – Insulation o Insulation – oil-coated fur or feathers o Polar bears – thick coat o Bare patches – more heat exchange with environment – all temperature regulation is done through bare patches o Lots of body fat – Insulates and protects the metabolic reactions taking place internally o Set-point adjustment o Reset the internal thermostat o Colder when asleep o Warmer when active o You don’t need to spend a lot of energy when you’re asleep so you can down regulate your temperature
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o If you’re working, exercising, (active) – you need to have all of the enzymes and chemical systems active warmer temperature o Torpor – animals sleeping during the day o Animals drop their body temperature so that they do not have to use as much energy o Hypothermia – you can only spend so much energy to try to warm yourself until the set-point is lowered (this happens in humans) o All the systems in your body eventually start to shut down – because the temperature is too low for your body to be working efficiently. ANIMAL TEMPERATURE REGULATION - 10 Behavioral thermoregulation o Endotherms use behavior to supplement physiological regulation o If it’s cold, you go in the house o If it’s warm, you seek water, shade o Dogs and other large mammals use panting to induce cooling o Tongue adds to surface area and evaporative cooling occurs o Ectotherms must use behavior to regulate body temperature o When temperatures are too low, moths cannot fly they don’t have enough energy burning in body to use wings shiver in order to get their body warm enough to fly ANIMAL TEMPERATURE REGULATION – 11 Role of Circulation o In order to adapt to new temperature conditions, your body (human) will change the
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BIOLOGY 220 LECTURE #8 - Notes - BIOLOGY 220 LECTURE #8...

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