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Class Notes - 9-4-07

Class Notes - 9-4-07 - -Monosaccharides o Simple...

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Biology 220 – 9/4/07 – Class Notes Molecules of Life Dehydration Synthesis Hydrolysis Polysaccharides, lipids, proteins, and DNA - Water is released with formation of polymers (dehydration synthesis) required water to be broken down into monomers (hydrolysis) Mononmers Dehydration Synthesis Polymers --------------------------------------------------- Monosaccharides Polysaccharidesd Fatty acids + glycerol triglycerides Amino acids Proteins Nucleotides DNA Dehydration Synthesis - Hydrolysis Endergonic – requires input of energy Exergonic – yields energy Organic Molecules Compounds containing carbon (except CO2, which is considered inorganic) Biologically important classes of organic compounds: o Carbohydrates Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides Nucleic acids Nucleotides, RNA, DNA, NADH, ATP Carbohydrates: general formula (CH2O)n o Easily stored o Highly variable in shape and size o Basic energy molecule Example: starch
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Unformatted text preview: -Monosaccharides o Simple sugars (typically 3-8 carbons) o Examples: 5-carbon • Ribose • Deoxyribose 6-carbon • Glucose (dextrose, blood sugar) • Fructose • Galactose (part of lactose)-Disaccharides o Dehydration synthesis Two Monosaccharides linked by oxygen and water molecule is produced Can be separated back into monosaccharides by breaking bond • (requires water – hydrolysis) We name these after monosaccharides o Examples Maltose or “malt sugar” • Glucose-Glucose Sucrose or “table sugar” • Glcose-fructose Lactose or “milk sugar” • Galactose-glucose-Polysaccharides - many monosaccharides linked together – storage! o Various ways to link glucose: Some bonds are easier to break than others-NUCLEIC ACIDS-Anything that ends in “-ase” is an enzyme-Double bonds in fats usually indicates an unsaturated fat-...
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Class Notes - 9-4-07 - -Monosaccharides o Simple...

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