Journal 2 Developments in the West and Africa_1

Journal 2 Developments in the West and Africa_1 - Journal...

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Unformatted text preview: Journal Part Two: Developments in the West and Africa 1. Table Talk 2. Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina 3. Treatise on Toleration 4. A Voyage to New Calabar River in the Year 1699 5. The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano Written by Himself _______________________________________________ _ 1. Table Talk Martin Luther Background to the Document The Protestant Reformation had many voices, but its first prophet was Martin Luther (1483-1546), whose Ninety-Five Theses of 1517 initiated the momentous anti-Catholic rebellion. Born into the family of a German miner and educated at the University of Erfurt, the young Luther was preparing for a career as a lawyer when suddenly in 1505 he changed course and became an Augustinian friar. Luther's decision resulted from his dissatisfaction over his relationship with God and doubts about his personal salvation. He hoped that life as an Augustinian would protect him from the world's temptations and allow him to win God's favor by devoting himself to prayer, study, and the sacraments. His spiritual anxieties soon returned, however. Intensely conscious of his own inadequacies and failings, he became convinced that he could never earn his salvation or live up to the high standards of selflessness, charity, and purity prescribed by Jesus' teachings and the Catholic Church. He despaired of ever satisfying an angry, judging God and was terrorized by the prospect of eternal damnation in Hell. During the 1510s, however, while teaching theology at the University of Wittenberg, Luther found spiritual peace through his reflections on the scriptures. He concluded that human beings, burdened as they were by weakness and sin, could never earn salvation by leading a blameless life and performing in the proper spirit the pious acts enjoined by the Catholic Church. Rather, salvation was an unmerited divine gift, resulting from God- implanted faith in Jesus, especially in the redemptive power of his death and resurrection. This fundamental Protestant doctrine of justification by faith alone" inspired the Ninety- Five Theses, in which Luther attacked contemporary Catholic teaching. In particular he sought to discredit the doctrine of indulgences, which taught that people could atone for their sins and ensure their own and loved ones' salvation by contributing money to the Church. Within five years Luther was the recognized leader of a religious movement — Protestantism — that broke with the Catholic Church not just over salvation but also a host of other fundamental issues concerning Christianity and the Christian of other fundamental issues concerning Christianity and the Christian life....
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course HIST 1000C taught by Professor Cooper during the Spring '08 term at St. Johns Duplicate.

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Journal 2 Developments in the West and Africa_1 - Journal...

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