Journal 9 Independence and Interwar Anxiety

Journal 9 Independence and Interwar Anxiety - Journal Part...

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Journal Part Nine: Independence and Interwar Anxiety 1. Indian Home Rule  2. London Manifesto  3. Letter from Turkey  4. U.S. Senate Speech 5. Speech to the National Socialist Women’s Association  _______________________________________________ _ 1. Indian Home Rule  Mohandas Gandhi  Primary Source Document CIVILIZATION R EADER : Now you will have to explain what you mean by civilization .... E DITOR : Let us first consider what state of things is described by the word “civilization.”  Its true test lies in the fact that people living in it make bodily welfare the object of life.  We will take some examples: The people of Europe today live in better-built houses than  they did a hundred years ago. This is considered an emblem of civilization, and this is  also a matter to promote bodily happiness. Formerly, they wore skins, and used as their  weapons spears. Now, they wear long trousers, and for embellishing their bodies they 
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wear a variety of clothing, and, instead of spears, they carry with them revolvers  containing five or more chambers. If people of a certain country, who have hitherto not  been in the habit of wearing much clothing, boots, etc., adopt European clothing, they are  supposed to have become civilized out of savagery. Formerly, in Europe, people plowed  their lands mainly by manual labor. Now, one man can plow a vast tract by means of  steam-engines, and can thus amass great wealth. This is called a sign of civilization.  Formerly, the fewest men wrote books, that were most valuable. Now, anybody writes  and prints anything he likes and poisons people’s minds. Formerly, men traveled in  wagons; now they fly through the air, in trains at the rate of four hundred and more miles  per day. This is considered the height of civilization. It has been stated that, as men  progress, they shall be able to travel in airships and reach any part of the world in a few  hours. Men will not need the use of their hands and feet. They will press a button, and  they will have their clothing by their side. They will press another button, and they will  have their newspaper. A third, and a motor-car will be in waiting for them. They will  have a variety of delicately dished up food. Everything will be done by machinery.  Formerly, when people wanted to fight with one another, they measured between them  their bodily strength; now it is possible to take away thousands of lives by one man  working behind a gun from a hill. This is civilization. Formerly, men worked in the open  air only so much as they liked. Now, thousands of workmen meet together and for the  sake of maintenance work in factories or mines. Their condition is worse than that of 
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