Journal 5 Socialism and Nationalism

Journal 5 Socialism and Nationalism - Journal Part Five...

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Journal Part Five: Socialism and Nationalism 1. "Working Men of All Countries, Unite!"  2. Extracts from History of Germany in the Nineteenth Century and  Historical and Political Writings  3. The Jews’ State  4.  Communist Decrees and Legislation 5. The Plan of Ayala   _____________________________________________________________ 1. "Working Men of All Countries, Unite!"  Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels  (1848)  Description of Document When Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) published The Communist Manifesto (1848), excerpted here, they changed forever the face of the socialist movement, indeed the history of Europe and the world. In contrast to the utopian socialist dreams of Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825), Charles Fourier (1772-1837), and Robert Owen (1771-1858), Marx and Engels presented a logical, scientific, historically based analysis of the capitalist system and a revolutionary plan for its destruction. The socialist system that would replace capitalism was left rather vague, however. Based on German philosophy, French utopian socialism, and English political economy, Marx's scientific socialism seemed intellectually unassailable. The bloody June Days in Paris that year seemed to support Marx's contention that all history is the history of class struggle. Marxist socialism soon became the dominant strain of socialism and remained so until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. According to Marx, capitalism was based on the ability of the capitalist to extract the "surplus value" of workers' labor, which provided the profits. Marx also observed that the ruthless competition of the capitalist system resulted in a "boom/bust" economic cycle that was increasingly proletarianizing and pauperizing more and more people. Eventually, he concluded, there would be only two homogeneous classes left: a very tiny, wealthy bourgeoisie and a gigantic, impoverished proletariat. At that time, the vanguard of the workers, the communists, would lead the proletariat in a violent political revolution and establish the socialist world. History would come to an end, as there would be only one class left, the proletariat. 73
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Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, in Arthur P. Mendel, The Essential Works of Marxism (New York: Bantam, 1961), 13-17, 19, 23, 40-44. Primary Source Document A specter is haunting Europe--the specter of communism. All the powers of old Europe  have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this specter: Pope and Czar, Metternich and  Guizot, French Radicals and German police-spies. . ..  Communism is already acknowledged by all European powers to be itself a power. It is high time that Communists should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish 
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course HIST 1000C taught by Professor Cooper during the Spring '08 term at St. Johns Duplicate.

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Journal 5 Socialism and Nationalism - Journal Part Five...

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