Prelim II Review Packet - Developmental Psych Prelim II...

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Developmental Psych Prelim II Review I. Motor, cognitive, and social development in infancy a. Six sensorimotor substages i. Reflex schemas 0-1.4 months: basic behavior units that change into new things as experiences and stimulation increase ii. Primary circular reactions 1.4 – 4 months: repetition of pleasurable acts that involve the self and infant’s body (example: vocal exploration with making high-pitched noises) iii. Secondary circular reactions 4 – 8 months: explore cause-effect relationships with environment; realize actions have impact on surroundings; example: fake coughs to get attention iv. Coordination of secondary circular reactions 8-12 months: Combine early schemas to solve problems; will try bunch of new behaviors with different objects to solve problems; varies several attempts; example: cognitive and motor flexibility in motor development v. Tertiary circular reactions 12-18 months: vary behavior to solve problems, mainly experimentation; baby realizes it can try all types of behaviors on all types of objects instead of stereotyping behaviors for certain objects; “little scientists stage” vi. Beginning of symbolic representation 18-24 months: representation for objects b. Challenges to Piaget i. Renee’s Baillargeon’s work on perception of impossible events 1. Arranged young infants to watch screen as it rotated forward through 180 degree arc on hinge until lying flat; when shown rotating screen, habituated to screen, then shown impossible event of screen going through box 2. Babies looked longer at impossible events than possible events of the stopping screen, implying the expectation of the object to exist behind the screen and believed it its impossible for screens to move through solid objects 3. Problem (Cohen and Bogartz) was that habituation was training; dishabituation of infant looking depends on what was used for habituation trials; babies were paying attention to amount of screen movement and novelty of objects, not relationship between the objects ii. Leslie’s work on causation 1. Provided 6 month olds with computer screen with cause and effect squares bumping into each other; squares moving because of bumping had less starting than squares randomly moving without causation, implying babies had innate sense of cause and effect 2. Problems with Leslie’s research (Cohen) a. When replaced Leslie’s simple squares with realistic objects, infants became overloaded and no longer responded on basis of causality; supported idea that infants are learning to infer causality and will display knowledge only properly arranged circumstances c. Social learning and development i. Infant-directed speech: 1. Acoustic and linguistic characteristics:
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a. Higher pitch and exaggerated intonation; clear pronunciation, slower tempo, exaggerated pitch contours (frequency modulation), exaggerated amplitude modulation, simplified linguistic structure, almost universal 2. Functions a. Organizes infant attention to important features of environment b.
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Prelim II Review Packet - Developmental Psych Prelim II...

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