Prelim I Review - I Introduction to developmental science a Examples of psychobiological approach i Looking at the psychological and biological

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I. Introduction to developmental science a. Examples of psychobiological approach i. Looking at the psychological and biological causes of a certain behavior, including the multiple levels of organization at work that cause the biomechanism to occur b. Experimental design i. Independent, dependent variables 1. Independent variables are the things that are controlled during an experiment that bring about a change that’s observed 2. Dependent variables are the things that are measured in the change during the experiment ii. Extraneuous and confounding variables 1. Extranuous variables are differing variables that might be present in the experiment that cause differentiations in the results, best kept at minimum 2. Confounding variables are extraneous variables at the same level of the dependent variables, leading to ambiguous results and possible alternate conclusions to the ones approached by the experiment c. Criteria of scientific description i. Objectivity – experiment must not be affected by the biases of the observer or the ones being observed ii. Reliability – the requirement that when the experiment is reproduced, the results are consistent iii. Replicability – the requirement that other researchers can reproduce the same experiment and find similar results d. Problems with the “cake” metaphor of development i. Traditional view of cake metaphor puts too much emphasis on the dichotomy of genes and experiences, that “genes are blue print and experiences are ingredients”, when there is actually a bi-directional causation between the two. ii. Sometimes experience actually change gene expression or genes can change each other iii. Early experiences can canalize later experiences, which isn’t accounted for in the cake metaphor iv. Example: Gottlieb’s ducklings needed to hear own and sibling vocalizations to attend to maternal assembly call v. Example: cloned kittens with same genetic material had different behaviors, different temperaments, different fur colors, etc e. Multi-causality i. Idea that there are multiple levels of causation of a biomechanism or behavior that comes from complex or simple multiple levels of organization ii. Goes against idea of executive controller iii. In “A not B error”, there are multicausality in things affecting
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movement, including arm movements, developmental of mental capacity in object permanence and remembering, not just an executive controller f. Three types of nested timescales i. Real time – moment to moment, actual time; more concerned with learning and social interaction ii. Developmental time – months, years, etc; more concerned with ontogenetic stages iii. Evolutionary time/comparative time – adaptive significance g. Continuous and discontinuous development i. Quantitative changes describe continuous development, where change and development is continuous like auditory development, etc ii. Qualitative changes concerned with discontinuous development, where described by distinct stages that are differentiated by abrupt
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PSYCH 2090 taught by Professor Goldstein, m during the Spring '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Prelim I Review - I Introduction to developmental science a Examples of psychobiological approach i Looking at the psychological and biological

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