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Names: I highlighted the people in green along with their contributions – I also highlighted/bolded something that might be important. Sorry if I missed somethings! David Strayer - Cell phone attention study Do hands-free cell conversations impair driving? Answer?: Could still be impairing Study set up - driving simulator game in lab Experimenter prescreened subjects for topics Interesting topics discussed Varied traffic conditions of simulator Dependent variable: reaction time to press brake in car simulator Control: no cell activity, just drove Experimental subjects: drive + cell talking Under low traffic conditions: Slight increase in brake response time for the experimental subjects compared to control Under high traffic conditions: Significant increase in brake response time relative to control subjects Result: Subjects on the hands-free cell phone actually exhibited inattentional blindness for center of field of vision --- [peripheral] Real world issue: city driving in complex conditions Divided Attention Made worse by human factors issues FOLLOW UP STUDY - Wikman et al. (1998) Does driving experience help? YES, While we get better with practice, problems may still arise under heavy traffic conditions Key Concepts: Divided Attention (what is it? Examples) What is attention? Concentration of mental activity. Attention allows your cognitive process to take in selected aspects of your sensory world in an efficient and accurate manner page 69 Three types that differ: Divided attention – multi task Selective attention – looking at one thing Saccadic eye-movements – perceptual process, eye make movements and allow us to attend to environment Divided Attention – example - driving while talking on phone Automatic and Controlled Processing (what are these? What are their Characteristics?) Controlled processing Serial – step by step, one item at a time
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Effortful – strain in resources Demands high levels of attention – hard to focus on others things Complex, novel tasks – no experience, really hard to do Automatic processing – easy and familiar tasks Parallel – handle 2 or items at the same time Requires less effort lower levels of attention Simple or well-practiced tasks Can move between these types Historical observations of attention William James (1890) – experimental psychologist Physiological observations of attention Dual-Tasking: what do we know about it? Spelke et al. (1976) Can practice allow effective dual-tasking? Study: 2 subjects – read mid lvl text and comprehend text 1 hour sessions 80 sessions Objective - Read text and copy dictated words Recognition memory of words tested 1 week: identical levels of performance ***********DUAL tasking, concept of dual tasking, and how good people are same
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