Chapter 8 Review

Chapter 8 Review - Chapter 8 Eleanor Rosch- Developed the...

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Chapter 8 Eleanor Rosch - Developed the prototype approach , which states that we organize each category on the basis of a prototype, which is the idealized item that is most typical of the category. She also emphasized that members of a category differ in their prototypicality, or degree to which they are prototypical. She has conducted numerous studies on the characteristics of prototypes. The research demonstrated that all members of categories are not created equal. Also, examined the role of prototypes in family resemblance. Ed Smith- The features used in the Feature Comparison Model of Semantic Memory are either defining features or characteristic features. James McClelland- Responsible for the Parallel Distributed Processing connectionist model and neural networks. Frederick Bartlett- Memory researcher who used natural language material. Believed that the most interesting aspect of memory was the complex interaction between the prior knowledge of the participants and the material presented during the experiment. “The War of the Ghosts” experiment. Proved that people will add to a story that doesn’t fit into their schemes so that it makes sense and insert inferences that relate to their knowledge. Concept -Refers to our mental representations of a category. Ex. You have a concept of “table” which refers to your mental representation of the objects in that category. Category - A class of objects that belong together. Ex. A variety of objects represent a certain category of furniture; all of these objects can be called a “table”. Typicality Effects- People reach decisions faster when an item is a typical member of its category, rather than an unusual member. Ex. You automatically know that a carrot is a vegetable but you pause when asked if a rutabaga is a vegetable. Feature Comparison Model- Figure 8.1 on pg. 250 -Ed Smith -Stage 1- compare all features of subject and predicate terms to determine featural similarity. (Either high, intermediate or low similarity) -Stage 2- Compare defining features of predicate to those of subject (match or mismatch) which lead you to a true or false answer. -Sentence verification studies (measure RT’s)
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Chapter 8 Review - Chapter 8 Eleanor Rosch- Developed the...

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