Anatomy1

Anatomy1 - LEVELS OF BIO. ORGANIZATION 1. Ionic &...

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LEVELS OF BIO. ORGANIZATION 1. a. Ions: atom(s) w/ electrical charge i. + charge cations (Na + , K + , Ca +2 , Mg +2 ) ii. – charge anions (Cl -1 , HCO 3 -1 , PO 4 -3 , SO 4 -2 ) b. Molecules: atoms combined in certain proportions (H 2 O) i. Separated based on size 1. Small molecules (H 2 O, amino acids, simple sugars, glycerol, nucleotides) 2. Mid-sized molecules (lipids: cholesterol and triglycerides, and others) 3. Macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides) 2. Cells a. Ions and molecules together b. Basic unit of structure c. Aggregates of ions and molecules 3. Tissues a. Formed by cells b. Made of same kind of cell c. Same intercellular substance (acts like “glue”) d. Same function e. Types of tissue found in body i. Epithelial ii. Connective iii. Muscular iv. Nervous 4. Organs a. Made of 2 or more types of tissue
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b. 2 types of organ tissue i. Stromal- connective 1. Ex: Liver- white fibrous connective tissue ii. Parenchymal- function and specific 1. Ex: Liver- hepatic cells 5. Organ Systems a. Made up of organs b. Each has its own structure and function c. All coordinated and integrated homeostasis 6. Organism a. Made up of organ systems b. Multicellular individual c. All organ systems work together 7. Population a. Group of organisms b. Live within given geographical area c. Epidemiology- study of spread of disease within a population
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MOLECULAR COMPOSITION OF LIVING SYSTEMS 1) LIPIDS a) Fatty acids- homologues of acetic acid i) Characteristics (1) Molecular composition: 16-18 carbons (2) Saturated (no double bonds) or unsaturated (double or triple bonds) ii) Functions (1) Metabolized by cells energy (2) Not metabolized stored energy b) Triglycerides i) Characteristics (1) Molecular composition: 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids (FA) (2) Saturated or unsaturated (3) # carbons in FA=16-18 (4) Variation in FA: length of C chain and sat./unsat. (a) Rare that all 3 FA are the same ii) Functions (1) Metabolized energy (2) Not metabolized stored energy (3) Insulation (a) Fat under skin insulates body (b) Decrease loss of heat maintain constant body temperature (4) Protection against mechanical forces (a) Kidneys- perineal fat protects kidneys (b) Eyes- orbital fat pads btwn eyes and bones c) Phosphoglycerides
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i) Characteristics (1) Molecular composition- 1 glycerol + 2 FA + 1 PO 4 + 1 “X” (2) “X”= choline, serine, ethanolamine or inositol (3) Polar head: “X” + PO 4 + glycerol (4) Non-polar tails: fatty acids ii) Function (1) Backbone of all cell membranes d) Glycolipids i) Characteristics (1) Molecular composition- 1 glycerol + 2 FA + 1 oligosaccharide (2) Modified triglyceride ii) Function (1) Maintain structure of cell membrane e) Prostaglandins i) Characteristics (1) Widespread, modified triglycerides ii) Function (1) Highly variable (a) Ex- pain: injury cells make prostaglandin extreme smooth muscle contraction pain (b) Aspirin: decreases production of prostaglandin
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course BIOL 20204 taught by Professor Barcellona during the Fall '07 term at TCU.

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Anatomy1 - LEVELS OF BIO. ORGANIZATION 1. Ionic &...

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