Anat-Test-4

Anat-Test-4 - MUSCULAR SYSTEM I. Muscular System A) Types...

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MUSCULAR SYSTEM I. Muscular System A) Types of Muscles 1) Skeletal (Somatic) Muscle (a) Voluntary- person controls muscle movements (b) Innervation- Central NS; somatic nervous system (i) Neuromuscular junction- one nerve ending to one muscle cell 2) Cardiac Muscle (a) Involuntary- person does not control muscle movements (b) Innervation- Autonomic NS (i) Neuromuscular junction- one nerve ending to many muscle cells 3) Smooth (Visceral) Muscle (a) Involuntary- person does not control muscle movements (b) Innervation- Autonomic NS (i) Neuromuscular junction (fast contracting)- one nerve ending to  one muscle cell; precise movements a Examples: intrinsic eye muscles, muscular arteries and  arterioles (ii) Neuromuscular junction (slow contracting)- one nerve ending to  many muscle cells; allows for gross, non precise movements a Examples: intestines and ureters B) Location in the Body 1) Skeletal Muscle (a) Attached to bones (b) Body cavities (c) Diaphragm (d) Bulk of extremities (e) Tongue (f) Extrinsic eye muscles- move eyes in orbits 2) Cardiac Muscle (a) Heart 3) Smooth Muscle- walls of hollow organs in body (a) Blood vessels (b) Gastrointestinal tract- stomach, small and large intestines (c) Respiratory tract- bronchioles
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(d) Excretory tract- walls of ureters, urinary bladder (e) Capsule of spleen (f) Arrector pili- associated with hair follicles (g) Intrinsic eye muscles- ciliary muscle, dilator pupillae, spincter  pupillae C) General Cytology (cell structure) of Muscle Tissues 1) General Features (a) Elongation and force of contraction (i) All muscle cells are elongated (ii) Ends to center (b) Muscle cells that move during contraction: (i) Become shorter in length (ii) Increase in diameter (c) Conversion of chemical energy (i) Make ATP changed to contractile force muscle cell contracts a Chemical energy mechanical energy (d) Sarcolemma (plasma membrane) (i) Can pass action potentials (nerve impulses/depolarization  waves)- stimulates muscle cell contraction (e) Sarcoplasm (cytoplasm) (f) Myofibrils- elongated cylinders; only in skeletal and cardiac muscle (i) Made up of protein myofilaments (actin, myosin, troponin, and  tropomyosin) (g) Mitochondria- large in size and highly numerous in skeletal and  cardiac muscle 2) Specific Features (a) Skeletal Muscle Cells (i) Elongated cylinders (ii) Cross striated- display banding patterns (iii) 1000 nuclei/cell- nuclei at periphery of cell (just under  sarcolemma) a Syncytium- cell with many nuclei; common cytoplasm shared  by many nuclei (b) Cardiac Muscle Cells (i) Elongated and branched (ii) Cross striated- banding patterns present
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(iii)One nucleus/cell (iv)Intercalated disc (only in cardiac muscle) a 2 adjacent muscle cells connected across short axis at
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Anat-Test-4 - MUSCULAR SYSTEM I. Muscular System A) Types...

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