Phys-Test-1 - TEST 1 Organ System group of organs with...

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TEST 1 I. Organ System- group of organs with specific structures and functions; coordinate  and integrate with each other to maintain homeostasis A) Systems to study 1) Nervous 2) Circulatory 3) Endocrine 4) Respiratory 5) Excretory 6) Digestive 7) Reproductive B) Examples (system and organ) 1) Circulatory- heart, blood vessels, lymphatics 2) Digestive- esophagus, stomach, small intestine II. Nervous System A) General function- short term coordination and integration of body functions; fast  reactions by electrochemical communication (nerve impulses- action potentials  (AP’s)) 1) Properties (a) Irritability or excitability- reception of stimuli AP’s (b) Conductivity- transmission of AP’s from one part of the body to another 2) Functional Sequence of Events (a) Reception of stimuli from external or internal environments (b) Conversion of stimuli to AP’s (c) Transmission of AP’s over correct pathways (d) AP reaches target and produces response B) Divisions of Nervous Systems 1) Central Nervous System (CNS) (a) Brain and spinal cord 2) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) (a) Somatic NS- nerves and ganglia associate only with skeletal muscle (b) Autonomic NS- nerves and ganglia associate only with internal organs (i) Sympathetic NS (ii) Parasympathetic NS a Produce opposite reactions in organs C) Histiological Elements (structure) 1) Neurons (nerve cells)- basic unit of function (a) 1 billion in brain; 1 trillion in NS 2) Neuroglial or Glial Cells- various types and functions; some divide tumor in  brain/spinal cord (glioma)
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(a) Schwann cells or neurolemmocytes (PMS only) (i) Associate with parts of neurons 3) White fibrous/collagenous connective tissue- in peripheral nerves D) Neuron 1) Component parts (a) Cell body (perikaryon)- contains nucleus and other organelles (b) Processes or fibers (i) Dendrite- short; 1-200 per neuron (ii) Axon- long; 1 per neuron 2) Morphological classification of Neurons (a) Pseudo-unipolar neuron (i) One fiber off of cell body and splits into 2 (ii) Typical of sensory neurons (b) Bipolar neuron (i) One dendrite and one axon (ii) Specialized sensory neurons (iii) Retina of eye, taste buds of tongue,  olfactory tissue of nose (c) Multipolar neuron (i) Up to 200 dendrites and one axon (ii) Most common neuron in NS 3) Functional Classification (a) Motor/Efferent Neurons (i) Carry nerve impulses from brain/spinal cord to muscles and glands (b) Sensory/Afferent Neurons (i) Nerve impulses from periphery (outside CNS) to brain/spinal cord (c) Interneurons/Association Neurons (i) a.k.a. internuncial neurons (ii) only in brain and spinal cord (iii) send nerve impulses from sensory to motor or from one interneuron to  another 4)
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Phys-Test-1 - TEST 1 Organ System group of organs with...

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