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GenNotes4_3 - location the location is called a VNTR...

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-1Genetics Notes Tuesday 4/3 (D5) I. It’s better to clone DNA in a bacteria than use it from other people because: 1. People only make as much as they need so there’s not much extra and you would have to get it from many people. 2. Bacteria will produce a lot because many plasmids and you use promoters that cannot be regulated (shut off). Gene therapy Genetic engineering Done on humans Done on non-humans Used to treat a condition Used to manipulate for the benefit of humans Done on adults and older children (since they know risks  like cancer, to progeny, not working, etc.) Done on embryos For somatic cells For germ cells Not heritable Heritable II. DNA fingerprinting -Done by PCR -focus on areas of the genome that vary greatly throughout the species, these areas are called polymorphic. -The most used method now is VNTR- variable number of tandem repeats (how many repeats at a certain
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Unformatted text preview: location, the location is called a VNTR. Example for one VNTR:------------------------------^^^^----------------------------------------------------------------------------------primer primer ---------------------------------------------------------------------^^^^--------------------------------------------Dr. Finklea has 30 repeats, Audre has 35 repeats and Megan has 42 But just one isn’t specific enough so about 12 different VNTRs are used. So once you have the 12 fragments you use electrophoresis. Example of the frequency of a certain fingerprint using only 6 VNTRs: VNTR odds 1 1 out of 10 2 1/20 3 1/50 4 1/12 5 1/20 6 1/15 Multiply the odds and you get 1 in 36000000 III. Mutations- heritable changes in DNA Lesion- DNA damage that doesn’t form one of the 4 standard nucleotides. Often leading to a mutation because DNA polymerase doesn’t know what to put there....
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