Intro to China Final Review

Intro to China Final Review - Intro to China Final Review...

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Intro to China Final Review ANT 310L BC = BCE (before common era); AD = CE (common era) PART I North China Plain = setting of the first ‘Chinese’ settlements, by the eastern Chinese coast by the Shandong Peninsula; encompasses the mouths of the Yellow, Huai, and Yangtze Rivers Yellow River = the northernmost of the major rivers; runs through northern deserts from far western highlands, and flows from north to south through hilly area of loess, then turns eastward at the southernmost of the loess highlands and spreads out in the alluvial plain to empty into the sea Yangtze River = the centermost of the major rivers, carries greater volume of water; rises in Tibetan highlands and crosses mountain around the Sichuan Basin and moves through gorges and sheer cliffs flowing to the sea; ½ cubic mile of water delivered daily Weather North: colder, flatter, more arid, shorter growing season and more alkaline soil; crops like wheat or millet, north of river has light rainfall; animal husbandry South: warmer and wetter with larger amount of rainfall (60 vs. 20); well suited for rice or double- cropping; more suitable for boat travel Sedentary Agriculture = (settled), appeared around 8000 BCE in the mid-neolithic period (12000 BP – 2000 BCE) Loess Region = around the Yellow River Valley (look at Yellow River) where it was perfect for the burgeoning of agriculture Yangshao Culture = (5000 – 3000 BCE) “painted pottery” culture, around mid Yellow River Valley; semi- permanent villages with spatial layout suggesting relative egalitarian social organization with unlinear clans; possible practice of clan exogamy; writing evolved from symbols that may be representations of clan/family ID; increase of wealth and appearance in luxury goods (jade, etc.); artistic motifs in pottery/stone; early graves has little differentiation in quality/quantity of items though some had large amounts of jade and other items; evidence of division according to occupational specialty Ex: Chiang-Chai Longshan Culture = (3000 – 2200 BCE) “black pottery” culture; still stone-oriented but getting more sophisticated, an armed village (walled town, guard tower, square shaped with walls facing cardinal points) alluding to a more violent culture/society, evidence for occupational specialization and organized social activity (sacrifice? Etc) Ex: Pingliangtai (2500 BCE, Late Longshan) Xia Dynasty (2200 – 1750 BCE) = transition between Longshan and Shang; highly sophisticated culture with structuralized architecture and functional areas (palaces, temples, dwellings), making of weapons and ritual implements (large scale sacrifices), obvious divide between aristocracy and commoners, organized violence present, increasing ideas of wealth and possession, development of writing system (full writing system comes out around 1250 BC; suddenly came out with Shang) Proof of Xia: Erlitou Huangdi (Yellow Emperor) = a sort of “god” who invented the bow and arrow along with boats, carts,
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course ANT 310L taught by Professor Hale during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas.

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Intro to China Final Review - Intro to China Final Review...

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